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      Subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution and serum lipid/lipoprotein in unmedicated postmenopausal women: A B-mode ultrasound study

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          Abstract

          Background

          It has been observed that gluteal-femoral adipose tissue has a protective effect against risk factors for cardiovascular disease but has not yet been concluded how different evaluation methods of fat distribution affect the results.

          Methods

          To test the hypothesis that B-mode ultrasound-measured subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, 326 Japanese unmedicated postmenopausal women aged 50–70 years were analyzed. Subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at 6 sites (anterior and posterior aspects of trunk, upper-arm, and thigh) and serum total (TC) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) was measured, and a ratio of HDLC to TC (HDLC/TC) was calculated. We used Bayesian linear regression with 4 separate models with each model predicting HDLC/TC.

          Results

          Our first model provided evidence for an inverse correlation ( r = –0.23) between ultrasound measured body fat (6 site measurement) and HDLC/TC. The second model noted evidence for an inverse correlation between trunk fat and HDLC/TC and found evidence for the null with respect to the correlation between thigh fat and HDLC/TC. Therefore, we added thigh fat to the null model to produce Distribution Model 2. Within this model, we noted an inverse correlation ( r = –0.353) between trunk fat and HDLC/TC. Our last model determined that within the trunk fatness, the abdominal area (anterior trunk) was a larger predictor than the subscapular site (posterior trunk).

          Conclusion

          These results support the evidence that ultrasound-measured abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness is a non-invasive predictor for monitoring the risk for dyslipidemia in postmenopausal women.

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          Author and article information

          Contributors
          Journal
          1647
          Imaging
          Imaging
          Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
          2732-0960
          20 December 2021
          10 May 2021
          : 13
          : 2
          : 119-123
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Health, Exercise Science, & Recreation Management, Kevser Ermin Applied Physiology Laboratory, The University of Mississippi, University , MS 38677, USA
          [2 ] Department of Health and Exercise Science, Rowan University , Glassboro, NJ 08028, USA
          Author notes
          [* ]Corresponding author. 224 Turner Center, University , MS 38677, USA. Tel.: +1 662 915 5521; fax: +1 662 915 5525. E-mail: t12abe@ 123456gmail.com
          Article
          10.1556/1647.2021.00022
          b102f3e6-287d-42bf-9500-02ad059c4214
          © 2021 The Author(s)

          Open Access. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

          Page count
          Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 24, Pages: 05

          Medicine,Immunology,Health & Social care,Microbiology & Virology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
          subcutaneous fat thickness,body fat distribution,high-density lipoprotein cholesterol,ultrasonography

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