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      Prognostic value of kidney biopsy in myeloma cast nephropathy: a retrospective study of 70 patients

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          Abstract

          Light chain myeloma cast nephropathy (MCN) is the major cause of renal failure in multiple myeloma and strongly impacts patient survival. The role of kidney biopsy in the management of MCN is unclear.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Renal impairment in patients with multiple myeloma: a consensus statement on behalf of the International Myeloma Working Group.

          Renal impairment is a common complication of multiple myeloma (MM). The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula is the recommended method for the assessment of renal function in patients with MM with stabilized serum creatinine. In acute renal injury, the RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss and end-stage kidney disease) and Acute Renal Injury Network criteria seem to be appropriate to define the severity of renal impairment. Novel criteria based on eGFR measurements are recommended for the definition of the reversibility of renal impairment. Rapid intervention to reverse renal dysfunction is critical for the management of these patients, especially for those with light chain cast nephropathy. Bortezomib with high-dose dexamethasone is considered as the treatment of choice for such patients. There is limited experience with thalidomide in patients with myeloma with renal impairment. Thus, thalidomide can be carefully administered, mainly in the context of well-designed clinical trials, to evaluate if it can improve the rapidity and probability of response that is produced by the combination with bortezomib and high-dose dexamethasone. Lenalidomide is effective in this setting and can reverse renal insufficiency in a significant subset of patients, when it is given at reduced doses, according to renal function. The role of plasma exchange in patients with suspected light chain cast nephropathy and renal impairment is controversial. High-dose melphalan (140 mg/m(2)) and autologous stem-cell transplantation should be limited to younger patients with chemosensitive disease.
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            Treatment of acute renal failure secondary to multiple myeloma with chemotherapy and extended high cut-off hemodialysis.

            Extended hemodialysis using a high cut-off dialyzer (HCO-HD) removes large quantities of free light chains in patients with multiple myeloma. However, the clinical utility of this method is uncertain. This study assessed the combination of chemotherapy and HCO-HD on serum free light chain concentrations and renal recovery in patients with myeloma kidney (cast nephropathy) and dialysis-dependent acute renal failure. An open-label study of the relationship between free light chain levels and clinical outcomes in 19 patients treated with standard chemotherapy regimens and HCO-HD. There were sustained early reductions in serum free light chain concentrations (median 85% [range 50 to 97]) in 13 patients. These 13 patients became dialysis independent at a median of 27 d (range 13 to 120). Six patients had chemotherapy interrupted because of early infections and did not achieve sustained early free light chain reductions; one of these patients recovered renal function (at 105 d) the remaining 5 patients did not recover renal function. Patients who recovered renal function had a significantly improved survival (P < 0.012). In dialysis-dependent acute renal failure secondary to myeloma kidney, patients who received uninterrupted chemotherapy and extended HCO-HD had sustained reductions in serum free light chain concentrations and recovered independent renal function.
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              Early reduction of serum-free light chains associates with renal recovery in myeloma kidney.

              Myeloma kidney is the major cause of severe irreversible renal failure in patients with multiple myeloma. This tubulointerstitial injury is a direct consequence of high concentrations of circulating monoclonal free light chains (FLCs) produced by a clonal expansion of plasma cells. Early reduction of serum FLCs associates with renal recovery, but the target threshold of reduction to facilitate renal recovery is unknown. To determine the relationship between the achieved FLC reduction and renal recovery, we identified 39 patients with biopsy-proven myeloma kidney, the majority of whom had severe renal failure at presentation (median estimated GFR 9 ml/min per 1.73 m²). In a multivariable analysis incorporating demographic, hematologic, and renal variables, only the achieved FLC reduction significantly predicted renal recovery (P = 0.003). The relationship between renal recovery and FLC reduction was linear with no absolute threshold for FLC reduction. A 60% reduction in FLCs by day 21 associated with recovery of renal function for 80% of the population. Patient survival strongly associated with renal recovery: the median survival was 42.7 months (range 0 to 80) among those who recovered function compared with 7.8 months (range 0 to 54) among those who did not (P < 0.02). Cox-regression analysis demonstrated that the first presentation of myeloma, the kappa isotype of FLC, and renal recovery were independent predictors of survival. In conclusion, recovery of renal function in myeloma kidney depends on early reduction of serum FLCs, and this recovery associates with a significant survival advantage.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
                Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0931-0509
                1460-2385
                January 06 2016
                January 19 2016
                : 31
                : 1
                : 64-72
                Article
                10.1093/ndt/gfv283
                26289418
                © 2016

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