During recent years, synthetic methods combining microwaves and ionic liquids became accepted as a promising methodology for various materials preparations because of their high efficiency and low energy consumption. Ionic liquids with high polarity are heated rapidly, volumetrically and simultaneously under microwave irradiation. Hence, combination of microwave irradiation as a heating source with ionic liquids with various roles (e.g., solvent, additive, template or reactant) opened a completely new technique in the last twenty years for nanomaterials and polymers preparation for applications in various materials science fields including polymer science. This review summarizes recent developments of some common materials syntheses using microwave-assisted ionic liquid method with a focus on inorganic nanomaterials, polymers, carbon-derived composites and biomass-based composites. After that, the mechanisms involved in microwave-assisted ionic-liquid (MAIL) are discussed briefly. This review also highlights the role of ionic liquids in the reaction and crucial issues that should be addressed in future research involving this synthesis technique.