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      Parasitic nematodes of Polychrus acutirostris (Polychrotidae) in the Caatinga biome, Northeastern Brazil Translated title: Nematóides parasitas de Polycrhus acutirostris (Polychrotidae) no bioma Caatinga, Nordeste do Brasil

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          Abstract

          We present data on nematode infracommunity of the arboreal lizard Polycrhus acutirostris in the semiarid Caatinga biome, northeastern Brazil. Twenty- twolizard specimens collected in the municipality of Várzea Alegre in Ceará State and in the municipality of Exu in Pernambuco State were analyzed. Two species of nematodes were found, an Oxyuridae, Gynaecometra bahiensis, which had amean intensity of infection 23.5 ± 5.8 (prevalence 22%) and a Physalopteridae, Physaloptera retusa which had infection intensity of 21 (prevalence 9%). There were no significant differences between the parasitism rates of male or female lizards. Polychrus acutirostris demonstrated low richness of nematode parasites, but high levels of infection with G. bahiensis. Polychrus acutirostrisis reported here as a new host for P.retusa.

          Translated abstract

          Apresentamos dados sobre a infracomunidades de nematóides parasitas de Polycrhus acutirostris, lagarto arborícola do bioma Caatinga região semi-árida do nordeste do Brasil. Foram analisados 22 espécimes de lagartos coletados em um ambiente de Caatinga no município de Várzea Alegre, Estado do Ceará e no município de Exu, Pernambuco. Duas espécies de nematóides foram encontradas, um Oxyuridae, Gynaecometra bahiensis, com intensidade média de infecção 23,5 ± 5,8 (prevalência de 22%) e um Physalopteridae, Physaloptera retusa, com intensidade de infecção 21 (prevalência de 9%). Não houve diferenças significativas entre as taxas de parasitismo de lagartos machos ou fêmeas. Polycrhus acutirostris demonstrou baixa riqueza de parasitos, mas altos níveis de infecção por G. bahiensis. Polychrus acutirostris é registrado aqui como um novo hospedeiro para P.retusa.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Nematode parasites of vertebrates: their development and transmission.

           R C Anderson (2000)
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            Parasites of the superorganism: are they indicators of ecosystem health?

            The concept of ecosystem health is derived from analogies with human health, which subsequently leads to the implication that the ecosystem has organismal properties, a 'superorganism' in the Clementsian sense. Its application and usefulness has been the subject of a contentious debate; yet, the term 'ecosystem health' has captured the public's imagination and woven its way into the current lexicon, even incorporated into public policy. However, the application of parasites as bioindicators of ecosystem health poses a curious conundrum. Perceptions of parasites range from mild distaste to sheer disgust among the general public, the media, environmental managers and non-parasitologists in the scientific community. Nevertheless, the biological nature of parasitism incorporates natural characteristics that are informative and useful for environmental management. The helminths in particular have evolved elegant means to ensure their transmission, often relying on complex life cycle interactions that include a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. The assemblage of these diverse parasites within a host organism potentially reflect that host's trophic position within the food web as well as the presence in the ecosystem of any other organisms that participate in the various parasite life cycles. Perturbations in ecosystem structure and function that affect food web topology will also impact upon parasite transmission, thus affecting parasite species abundance and composition. As such, parasite populations and communities are useful indicators of environmental stress, food web structure and biodiversity. In addition, there may be useful other means to utilise parasitic organisms based on their biology and life histories such as suites or guilds that may be effective bioindicators of particular forms of environmental degradation. The challenge for parasitology is to convince resource managers and fellow scientists that parasites are a natural part of all ecosystems, each species being a potentially useful information unit, and that healthy ecosystems have healthy parasites.
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              Checklist of helminths from lizards and amphisbaenians (Reptilia, Squamata) of South America

               RW Ávila,  RJ Silva (2010)
              A comprehensive and up to date summary of the literature on the helminth parasites of lizards and amphisbaenians from South America is herein presented. One-hundred eighteen lizard species from twelve countries were reported in the literature harboring a total of 155 helminth species, being none acanthocephalans, 15 cestodes, 20 trematodes and 111 nematodes. Of these, one record was from Chile and French Guiana, three from Colombia, three from Uruguay, eight from Bolivia, nine from Surinam, 13 from Paraguay, 12 from Venezuela, 27 from Ecuador, 17 from Argentina, 39 from Peru and 103 from Brazil. The present list provides host, geographical distribution (with the respective biome, when possible), site of infection and references from the parasites. A systematic parasite-host list is also provided.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                bjb
                Brazilian Journal of Biology
                Braz. J. Biol.
                Instituto Internacional de Ecologia (São Carlos )
                1678-4375
                November 2014
                : 74
                : 4
                : 939-942
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Regional do Cariri Brazil
                [2 ] Cidade Universitária Brazil
                [3 ] Universidade Regional do Cariri Brazil
                [4 ] Universidade Regional do Cariri Brazil
                Article
                S1519-69842014000400939
                10.1590/1519-6984.01313
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                BIOLOGY

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