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      Health inequalities and people with learning disabilities in the UK

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      Tizard Learning Disability Review
      Emerald

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          Risks of leukaemia and solid tumours in individuals with Down's syndrome.

          Individuals with Down's syndrome have a greater risk of leukaemia than the general population, but reliable estimates of the age-specific risk are lacking and little is known about the risk of solid tumours. We identified 2814 individuals with Down's syndrome from the Danish Cytogenetic Register, and linked the data to the Danish Cancer Registry. The number of person-years at risk was 48453. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) and 95% CI were calculated of the basis of cancer rates specific for age and sex in the general population. 60 cases of cancer were found, with 49.8 expected (SIR 1.20 [95% CI 0.92-1.55]). Leukaemia constituted 60% of cases of malignant disease overall and 97% of cases in children. The SIR for leukaemia varied with age, being 56 (38-81) at age 0-4 years and 10 (4-20) at 5-29 years. No cases of leukaemia were seen after the age of 29 years. The SIR for acute myeloid leukaemia was 3.8 (1.7-8.4) times higher than that for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children aged 0-4 years. The cumulative risk for leukaemia by the age of 5 years was 2.1% and that by 30 years was 2.7%. Only 24 solid tumours were seen, with 47.8 expected (0.50 [0.32-0.75]). No cases of breast cancer were found, with 7.3 expected (p=0.0007). Higher than expected numbers of testicular cancers, ovarian cancers, and retinoblastomas were seen but were not significant. INTREPRETATION: The occurrence of cancer in Down's syndrome is unique with a high risk of leukaemia in children and a decreased risk of solid tumours in all age-groups. The distinctive pattern of malignant diseases may provide clues in the search for leukaemogenic genes and tumour-suppressor genes on chromosome 21.
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            A cascade of disparities: health and health care access for people with intellectual disabilities.

            People with ID represent approximately 2% of the population and, as a group, experience poorer health than the general population. This article presents recent conceptualizations that begin to disentangle health from disability, summarizes the literature from 1999 to 2005 in terms of the cascade of disparities, reviews intervention issues and promising practices, and provides recommendations for future action and research. The reconceptualization of health and disability examines health disparity in terms of the determinants of health (genetic, social circumstances, environment, individual behaviors, health care access) and types of health conditions (associated, comorbid, secondary). The literature is summarized in terms of a cascade of disparities experienced by people with ID, including a higher prevalence of adverse conditions, inadequate attention to care needs, inadequate focus on health promotion, and inadequate access to quality health care services. Promising practices are reviewed from the perspective of persons with ID, providers of care and services, and policies that influence systems of care. Recommendations across multiple countries and organizations are synthesized as guidelines to direct future action. They call for promoting principles of early identification, inclusion, and self-determination of people with ID; reducing the occurrence and impact of associated, comorbid, and secondary conditions; empowering caregivers and family members; promoting healthy behaviors in people with ID; and ensuring equitable access to quality health care by people with ID. Their broadscale implementations would begin to reduce the health disparity experienced by people with ID. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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              A total population study of challenging behaviour in the county of Hedmark, Norway: prevalence, and risk markers.

              Studies in Britain and the US indicate that 10-15% of people with mental retardation show challenging behaviour, like attacking others (aggression), self-injurious behaviour, destruction, and other difficult, disruptive or socially unacceptable acts. Most researchers indicate that challenging behaviour is more common among adolescents and young adults, among males, is associated with autism, and increases with lack of communication skills and severity of mental retardation. These factors can be understood as risk markers, and some of them can be decreased by preventive and treatment interventions, at least in principle. The present study confirmed most of the previous findings, with some exceptions: the prevalence of more demanding challenging behaviour was somewhat lower in the present study, and no association between gender and challenging behaviour was found. We also concluded that declining prevalence of challenging behaviour at older ages is not a result of a young age structure of the population.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Tizard Learning Disability Review
                Tizard Learning Disability Rev
                Emerald
                1359-5474
                January 31 2011
                January 31 2011
                : 16
                : 1
                : 42-48
                Article
                10.5042/tldr.2011.0008
                b118ebcd-a385-44d0-8156-637d0627577c
                © 2011
                History

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