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      Impact of maternal intrapartum antibiotics, method of birth and breastfeeding on gut microbiota during the first year of life: a prospective cohort study.

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          Dysbiosis of the infant gut microbiota may have long-term health consequences. This study aimed to determine the impact of maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) on infant gut microbiota, and to explore whether breastfeeding modifies these effects.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Establishment of intestinal microbiota during early life: a longitudinal, explorative study of a large cohort of Danish infants.

          Fecal samples were obtained from a cohort of 330 healthy Danish infants at 9, 18, and 36 months after birth, enabling characterization of interbacterial relationships by use of quantitative PCR targeting 31 selected bacterial 16S rRNA gene targets representing different phylogenetic levels. Nutritional parameters and measures of growth and body composition were determined and investigated in relation to the observed development in microbiota composition. We found that significant changes in the gut microbiota occurred, particularly from age 9 to 18 months, when cessation of breastfeeding and introduction of a complementary feeding induce replacement of a microbiota characterized by lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae with a microbiota dominated by Clostridium spp. and Bacteroides spp. Classification of samples by a proxy enterotype based on the relative levels of Bacteroides spp. and Prevotella spp. showed that enterotype establishment occurs between 9 and 36 months. Thirty percent of the individuals shifted enterotype between 18 and 36 months. The composition of the microbiota was most pronouncedly influenced by the time of cessation of breastfeeding. From 9 to 18 months, a positive correlation was observed between the increase in body mass index and the increase of the short-chain-fatty-acid-producing clostridia, the Clostridum leptum group, and Eubacterium hallii. Considering previously established positive associations between rapid infant weight gain, early breastfeeding discontinuation, and later-life obesity, the corresponding microbial findings seen here warrant attention.
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            Infant gut microbiota and food sensitization: associations in the first year of life.

             M Azad,  T Konya,  D S Guttman (2015)
            The gut microbiota is established during infancy and plays a fundamental role in shaping host immunity. Colonization patterns may influence the development of atopic disease, but existing evidence is limited and conflicting.
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              Establishment of the intestinal microbiota and its role for atopic dermatitis in early childhood.

              Perturbations in the intestinal microbiota may disrupt mechanisms involved in the development of immunologic tolerance. The present study aimed to examine the establishment of the infant microbiota and its association to the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). Within a randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the prevention of AD by oral supplementation of a bacterial lysate between week 5 and the end of month 7, feces was collected at the ages of 5 weeks (n = 571), 13 weeks (n = 332), and 31 weeks (n = 499) and subjected to quantitative PCRs to detect bifidobacteria, bacteroides, lactobacilli, Escherichia coli, Clostridium difficile, and Clostridium cluster I. Birth mode, breast-feeding but also birth order had a strong effect on the microbiota composition. With increasing number of older siblings the colonization rates at age 5 weeks of lactobacilli (P < .001) and bacteroides (P = .02) increased, whereas rates of clostridia decreased (P < .001). Colonization with clostridia, at the age of 5 and 13 weeks was also associated with an increased risk of developing AD in the subsequent 6 months of life (odds ratioadjusted = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.36-3.94 and 2.51; 1.30-4.86, respectively). Mediation analyses demonstrated that there was a statistically significant indirect effect via Clostridium cluster I colonization for both birth mode and birth order in association to AD. The results of this study are supportive for a role of the microbiota in the development of AD. Moreover, the "beneficial" influence of older siblings on the microbiota composition suggests that this microbiota may be one of the biological mechanisms underlying the sibling effect. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology
                May 2016
                : 123
                : 6
                [1 ] Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
                [2 ] Department of Pediatrics & Child Health, Children's Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
                [3 ] Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
                [4 ] College of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
                [5 ] Centre for the Analysis of Genome Evolution and Function, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
                [6 ] Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
                [7 ] Department of Agricultural, Food & Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
                [8 ] Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
                [9 ] Department of Pediatrics, Child & Family Research Institute, BC Children's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
                [10 ] Department of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
                © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.


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