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      Evaluating the morphology of the left atrial appendage by a transesophageal echocardiographic 3-dimensional printed model

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          The novel 3-dimensional printing (3DP) technique has shown its ability to assist personalized cardiac intervention therapy. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of 3D-printed left atrial appendage (LAA) models based on 3D transesophageal echocardiography (3D TEE) data and their application value in treating LAA occlusions.

          Eighteen patients with transcatheter LAA occlusion, and preprocedure 3D TEE and cardiac computed tomography were enrolled. 3D TEE volumetric data of the LAA were acquired and postprocessed for 3DP. Two types of 3D models of the LAA (ie, hard chamber model and flexible wall model) were printed by a 3D printer. The morphological classification and lobe identification of the LAA were assessed by the 3D chamber model, and LAA dimensions were measured via the 3D wall model. Additionally, a simulation operative rehearsal was performed on the 3D models in cases of challenging LAA morphology for the purpose of understanding the interactions between the device and the model.

          Three-dimensional TEE volumetric data of the LAA were successfully reprocessed and printed as 3D LAA chamber models and 3D LAA wall models in all patients. The consistency of the morphological classifications of the LAA based on 3D models and cardiac computed tomography was 0.92 ( P < .01). The differences between the LAA ostium dimensions and depth measured using the 3D models were not significant from those measured on 3D TEE ( P > .05). A simulation occlusion was successfully performed on the 3D model of the 2 challenging cases and compared with the real procedure.

          The echocardiographic 3DP technique is feasible and accurate in reflecting the spatial morphology of the LAA, which may be promising for the personalized planning of transcatheter LAA occlusion.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Three-Dimensional Printing and Medical Imaging: A Review of the Methods and Applications.

          The purpose of this article is to review recent innovations on the process and application of 3-dimensional (3D) printed objects from medical imaging data. Data for 3D printed medical models can be obtained from computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound using the Data Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) software. The data images are processed using segmentation and mesh generation tools and converted to a standard tessellation language (STL) file for printing. 3D printing technologies include stereolithography, selective laser sintering, inkjet, and fused-deposition modeling . 3D printed models have been used for preoperative planning of complex surgeries, the creation of custom prosthesis, and in the education and training of physicians. The application of medical imaging and 3D printers has been successful in providing solutions to many complex medical problems. As technology advances, its applications continue to grow in the future.
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            Left atrial appendage studied by computed tomography to help planning for appendage closure device placement.

            To quantitatively study various morphologic parameters of the left atrial appendage (LAA) by computed tomography (CT) to aid the preoperative planning and implantation of left atrial appendage closure devices. In 612 cases of patients with or without atrial fibrillation (AF), a cardiac CT study was performed. The classification of general LAA morphology included ChickenWing type (18.3%), WindSock (46.7%), Cauliflower type (29.1%), and Cactus type (5.9%). Anatomical relationship of the LAA to the left superior pulmonary vein (LSPV) were classified as high type (superior to LSPV, 30.2%), mid type (parallel to LSPV, 58.1%), and low type (inferior to LSPV, 11.7%). LAA ostium could be classified into 5 types including oval (68.9%), foot-like (10%), triangular (7.7%), water drop-like (7.7%), and round (5.7%). Two-dimensional (2D) orthogonal method was obviously not accurate for determining the LAA orifice because the measurement was often unparallel to the LAA orifice. Two-dimensional oblique method was better than 3-dimensional method in reproducibility to determine the size of LAA ostium. The diameter calculated from the perimeter of the LAA ostium was superior to the diameter from direct measurement of the LAA ostium for selecting the occluder. The morphology of the LAA and the LA ostium are extremely complex and heterogeneous. Sixty-four-channel cardiac CT could assist preoperative planning of LAA closure device placement. The diameter of the LAA ostium calculated from the perimeter is the best parameter for sizing the LAA occluder. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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              Three-dimensional printing of intracardiac defects from three-dimensional echocardiographic images: feasibility and relative accuracy.

              With the advent of three-dimensional (3D) printers and high-resolution cardiac imaging, rapid prototype constructions of congenital cardiac defects are now possible. Typically, source images for these models derive from higher resolution, cross-sectional cardiac imaging, such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography. These imaging methods may involve intravenous contrast, sedation, and ionizing radiation. New echocardiographic transducers and advanced software and hardware have optimized 3D echocardiographic images for this purpose. Thus, the objectives of this study were to confirm the feasibility of creating cardiac models from 3D echocardiographic data and to assess accuracy by comparing 3D model measurements with conventional two-dimensional (2D) echocardiographic measurements of cardiac defects.

                Author and article information

                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Wolters Kluwer Health
                September 2017
                22 September 2017
                : 96
                : 38
                [a ]Department of Ultrasound Imaging, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University
                [b ]Computer Science and Technology School, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
                Author notes
                []Correspondence: Qing Zhou, Department of Ultrasound Imaging, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, No. 238, Jiefang Road, Wuhan 430060, China (e-mail: qingzhou128@ ).
                MD-D-17-02405 07865
                Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC), where it is permissible to download, share, remix, transform, and buildup the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be used commercially without permission from the journal.

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