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      The Lectin ArtinM Induces Recruitment of Rat Mast Cells from the Bone Marrow to the Peritoneal Cavity

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          Abstract

          Background

          The D-mannose binding lectin ArtinM is known to recruit neutrophils, to degranulate mast cells and may have potential therapeutic applications. However, the effect of ArtinM on mast cell recruitment has not been investigated.

          Methodology

          Male Wistar rats were injected i.p. with ArtinM or ConA (control). The ability of the lectin to degranulate peritoneal and mesenteric mast cells was examined. Recruitment of mast cells to the peritoneal cavity and mesentery after ArtinM injection was examined with or without depletion of peritoneal mast cells by distilled water.

          Results

          ArtinM degranulated both peritoneal and mesentery mast cells in vitro. Three days after i.p. injection of the lectin there were reduced numbers of mast cells in the peritoneal lavage, while at 7 days post injection of ArtinM, the number of peritoneal mast cells was close to control values. Since immature mast cells are recruited from the bone marrow, the effect of the lectin on bone marrow mast cells was examined. Injection of ArtinM resulted in an increased number of mast cells in the bone marrow. To determine if degranulation of mast cells in the peritoneal cavity was required for the increase in bone marrow mast cells, the peritoneal cavity was depleted of mast cells with ultrapure water. Exposure to ArtinM increased the number of mast cells in the bone marrow of rats depleted of peritoneal mast cells.

          Conclusions

          The ArtinM induced recruitment of mast cells from the bone marrow to the peritoneal cavity may partially explain the therapeutic actions of ArtinM.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Glycosylation in cellular mechanisms of health and disease.

          Glycosylation produces an abundant, diverse, and highly regulated repertoire of cellular glycans that are frequently attached to proteins and lipids. The past decade of research on glycan function has revealed that the enzymes responsible for glycosylation-the glycosyltransferases and glycosidases-are essential in the development and physiology of living organisms. Glycans participate in many key biological processes including cell adhesion, molecular trafficking and clearance, receptor activation, signal transduction, and endocytosis. This review discusses the increasingly sophisticated molecular mechanisms being discovered by which mammalian glycosylation governs physiology and contributes to disease.
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            Integrins are cell adhesion molecules that mediate cell-cell, cell-extracellular matrix, and cell-pathogen interactions. They play critical roles for the immune system in leukocyte trafficking and migration, immunological synapse formation, costimulation, and phagocytosis. Integrin adhesiveness can be dynamically regulated through a process termed inside-out signaling. In addition, ligand binding transduces signals from the extracellular domain to the cytoplasm in the classical outside-in direction. Recent structural, biochemical, and biophysical studies have greatly advanced our understanding of the mechanisms of integrin bidirectional signaling across the plasma membrane. Large-scale reorientations of the ectodomain of up to 200 A couple to conformational change in ligand-binding sites and are linked to changes in alpha and beta subunit transmembrane domain association. In this review, we focus on integrin structure as it relates to affinity modulation, ligand binding, outside-in signaling, and cell surface distribution dynamics.
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              Endothelial extracellular matrix: biosynthesis, remodeling, and functions during vascular morphogenesis and neovessel stabilization.

              The extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical for all aspects of vascular biology. In concert with supporting cells, endothelial cells (ECs) assemble a laminin-rich basement membrane matrix that provides structural and organizational stability. During the onset of angiogenesis, this basement membrane matrix is degraded by proteinases, among which membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs) are particularly significant. As angiogenesis proceeds, ECM serves essential functions in supporting key signaling events involved in regulating EC migration, invasion, proliferation, and survival. Moreover, the provisional ECM serves as a pliable scaffold wherein mechanical guidance forces are established among distal ECs, thereby providing organizational cues in the absence of cell-cell contact. Finally, through specific integrin-dependent signal transduction pathways, ECM controls the EC cytoskeleton to orchestrate the complex process of vascular morphogenesis by which proliferating ECs organize into multicellular tubes with functional lumens. Thus, the composition of ECM and therefore the regulation of ECM degradation and remodeling serves pivotally in the control of lumen and tube formation and, finally, neovessel stability and maturation.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2010
                22 March 2010
                : 5
                : 3
                Affiliations
                Department of Cell and Molecular Biology and Pathogenic Bioagents, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil
                Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: PAdAB MRIM DASJ MCJ MCRB CO. Performed the experiments: PAdAB MRIM DASJ CO. Analyzed the data: PAdAB MRIM DASJ MCJ MCRB CO. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: PAdAB MRIM DASJ MCJ MCRB CO. Wrote the paper: PAdAB MRIM DASJ MCJ MCRB CO.

                09-PONE-RA-13779R1
                10.1371/journal.pone.0009776
                2842300
                20339538
                Buranello et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Counts
                Pages: 11
                Categories
                Research Article
                Cell Biology
                Immunology
                Immunology/Innate Immunity

                Uncategorized

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