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      NEDD4-like ubiquitin ligase 2 protein (NEDL2) in porcine spermatozoa, oocytes, and preimplantation embryos and its role in oocyte fertilization

      1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 2
      Biology of Reproduction
      Oxford University Press (OUP)

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          Abstract

          The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays diverse regulatory and homeostatic roles in mammalian reproduction. Ubiquitin ligases are the substrate-specific mediators of ubiquitin-binding to its substrate proteins. The NEDD4-like ubiquitin ligase 2 (aliases NEDL2, HECW2) is a HECT-type ubiquitin ligase that contains one N-terminal HECW ubiquitin ligase domain, one C-terminal HECT ubiquitin ligase domain, one C2 domain, and two WW protein-protein interaction modules. Beyond its predicted ubiquitin-ligase activity, its cellular functions are largely unknown. Current studies were designed to investigate the content and distribution of NEDL2 in porcine spermatozoa, oocytes, zygotes, and early preimplantation embryos, and in cumulus cells before and after in vitro maturation with oocytes, and fibroblast cells as positive control by western blot and immunocytochemistry, and to examine its roles during oocyte fertilization. Multiple isoforms of NEDL2 were identified by WB. One at approximately 52 kDa was detected only in the germinal vesicle (GV) stage and metaphase II oocytes, and in early preimplantation embryos. Other isoforms were high mass bands at 91, 136, and 155 kDa, which were only detected in somatic cells. Interestingly, ejaculated spermatozoa prominently displayed the same 52 kDa band as oocytes; they also had two minor bands of 74 and 129 kDa, which were not detected in somatic cells or oocytes. By immunofluorescence, NEDL2 showed a diffused cytoplasmic localization in all cell types and accumulated in distinct foci in the germinal vesicles (GVs) of immature oocytes, in maternal and paternal pronuclei of zygotes and nuclei of embryo blastomeres and somatic cells. In blastocysts, the labeling intensity of NEDL2 was stronger in the inner cell mass than in trophoblast, indicating higher NEDL2 content in the ICM cells than in trophectoderm. NEDL2 abundance was 10 times higher in post-maturation oocyte-surrounding cumulus cells than that of cumulus cells before in vitro maturation with hormones, indicating that NEDL2 may have a unique role in cumulus cells after ovulation. Microinjection of anti-NEDL2 antibody into oocyte before IVF did not affect the percentage of oocytes fertilized, percentage of oocytes cleaved, or blastocyst formation. However, the anti-NEDL2 antibody decreased the number of pronuclei, accelerated the formation of nuclear precursor bodies at 6 h postfertilization, inhibited sperm DNA decondensation, and resulted in more fertilized oocytes without male pronuclear formation. In summary, NEDL2 may play a key role during fertilization, especially during sperm DNA decondensation.

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          Most cited references40

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          The ubiquitin system.

          The selective degradation of many short-lived proteins in eukaryotic cells is carried out by the ubiquitin system. In this pathway, proteins are targeted for degradation by covalent ligation to ubiquitin, a highly conserved small protein. Ubiquitin-mediated degradation of regulatory proteins plays important roles in the control of numerous processes, including cell-cycle progression, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, receptor down-regulation, and endocytosis. The ubiquitin system has been implicated in the immune response, development, and programmed cell death. Abnormalities in ubiquitin-mediated processes have been shown to cause pathological conditions, including malignant transformation. In this review we discuss recent information on functions and mechanisms of the ubiquitin system. Since the selectivity of protein degradation is determined mainly at the stage of ligation to ubiquitin, special attention is focused on what we know, and would like to know, about the mode of action of ubiquitin-protein ligation systems and about signals in proteins recognized by these systems.
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            Physiological functions of the HECT family of ubiquitin ligases.

            The ubiquitylation of proteins is carried out by E1, E2 and E3 (ubiquitin ligase) enzymes, and targets them for degradation or for other cellular fates. The HECT enzymes, including Nedd4 family members, are a major group of E3 enzymes that dictate the specificity of ubiquitylation. In addition to ubiquitylating proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome, HECT E3 enzymes regulate the trafficking of many receptors, channels, transporters and viral proteins. The physiological functions of the yeast HECT E3 ligase Rsp5 are the best known, but the functions of HECT E3 enyzmes in metazoans are now becoming clearer from in vivo studies.
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              RING domain E3 ubiquitin ligases.

              E3 ligases confer specificity to ubiquitination by recognizing target substrates and mediating transfer of ubiquitin from an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme to substrate. The activity of most E3s is specified by a RING domain, which binds to an E2 approximately ubiquitin thioester and activates discharge of its ubiquitin cargo. E2-E3 complexes can either monoubiquitinate a substrate lysine or synthesize polyubiquitin chains assembled via different lysine residues of ubiquitin. These modifications can have diverse effects on the substrate, ranging from proteasome-dependent proteolysis to modulation of protein function, structure, assembly, and/or localization. Not surprisingly, RING E3-mediated ubiquitination can be regulated in a number of ways. RING-based E3s are specified by over 600 human genes, surpassing the 518 protein kinase genes. Accordingly, RING E3s have been linked to the control of many cellular processes and to multiple human diseases. Despite their critical importance, our knowledge of the physiological partners, biological functions, substrates, and mechanism of action for most RING E3s remains at a rudimentary stage.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biology of Reproduction
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0006-3363
                1529-7268
                January 2021
                January 04 2021
                October 08 2020
                January 2021
                January 04 2021
                October 08 2020
                : 104
                : 1
                : 117-129
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA
                [2 ]Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women’s Health, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA
                Article
                10.1093/biolre/ioaa186
                b13eb8c8-e4d1-4b01-9ab4-c6d61e6ae1f4
                © 2020

                https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model


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