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      Anatomical complications of hysterectomy: A review : Complications of Hysterectomy

      1 , 2 , , 1 , 2
      Clinical Anatomy
      Wiley

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          Hysterectomy rates in the United States, 2003.

          To estimate hysterectomy rates by type of hysterectomy and to compare age, length of stay, and regional variation in type of hysterectomy performed for benign indications. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of national discharge data using the 2003 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. These data represent a 20% stratified sample of U.S. hospitals. Women aged 16 years or older who underwent a hysterectomy were identified by International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification procedure codes. We extracted data regarding age, race, diagnoses codes, length of stay, and hospital characteristics. Using 2000 National Census data and weighted data analysis for cluster sampling, we calculated hysterectomy rates. In 2003, 602,457 hysterectomies were performed, for a rate of 5.38 per 1,000 women-years. Of the 538,722 hysterectomies for benign disease (rate 4.81 per 1,000 women-years), the abdominal route was the most common (66.1%), followed by vaginal (21.8%) and laparoscopic (11.8%) routes. Mean ages (+/-standard deviation) differed among hysterectomy types (abdominal 44.5+/-0.1 years, vaginal 48.2+/-0.2 years, and laparoscopic 43.6+/-0.3 years, P<.001). Mean lengths of stay (+/-standard deviation) were also different (3.0+/-0.03 days, 2.0+/-0.03 days, 1.7+/-0.03 days, respectively, P<.001). The hysterectomy rate was highest in the South (5.92 per 1,000 women-years) and lowest in the Northeast (3.33 per 1,000 women-years). Despite a shorter length of stay, vaginal and laparoscopic hysterectomies remain far less common than abdominal hysterectomy for benign disease. III.
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            Vaginal changes and sexuality in women with a history of cervical cancer.

            In women with cervical cancer, treatment causes changes in vaginal anatomy and function. The effect of these changes on sexual function and the extent, if any, to which they distress women are not known. In 1996 and 1997, we attempted to contact 332 women with a history of early-stage cervical cancer (age range, 26 to 80 years) who had been treated in 1991 and 1992 at the seven departments of gynecological oncology in Sweden and 489 women without a history of cancer (controls) to ask them to answer an anonymous questionnaire about vaginal changes and sexual function. We received completed questionnaires from 256 of the women with a history of cervical cancer and 350 of the controls. A total of 167 of 247 women with a history of cancer (68 percent) and 236 of 330 controls (72 percent) reported that they had regular vaginal intercourse. Twenty-six percent of the women who had cancer and 11 percent of the controls reported insufficient vaginal lubrication for sexual intercourse, 26 percent of the women who had cancer and 3 percent of the controls reported a short vagina, and 23 percent of the women who had cancer and 4 percent of the controls reported an insufficiently elastic vagina. Twenty-six percent of the women who had cancer reported moderate or much distress due to vaginal changes, as compared with 8 percent of the women in the control group. Dyspareunia was also more common among the women who had cervical cancer. The frequency of orgasms and orgasmic pleasure was similar in the two groups. Among the women who had cervical cancer, the type of treatment received had little if any effect on the prevalence of specific vaginal changes. Women who have been treated for cervical cancer have persistent vaginal changes that compromise sexual activity and result in considerable distress.
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              Surgical approach to hysterectomy for benign gynaecological disease.

              The three approaches to hysterectomy for benign disease are abdominal hysterectomy (AH), vaginal hysterectomy (VH), and laparoscopic hysterectomy (LH). Laparoscopic hysterectomy has three further subdivisions depending on the part of the procedure performed laparoscopically. To assess the most beneficial and least harmful surgical approach to hysterectomy for women with benign gynaecological conditions. We searched the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialised Register of controlled trials (15 August 2008), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1950 to August 2008), EMBASE (1980 to August 2008), Biological Abstracts (1969 to August 2008), the National Research Register, and relevant citation lists. Only randomised controlled trials comparing one surgical approach to hysterectomy with another were included. Independent selection of trials and data extraction were employed following Cochrane guidelines. There were 34 included studies with 4495 women. The benefits of VH versus AH were speedier return to normal activities (mean difference (MD) 9.5 days), fewer febrile episodes or unspecified infections (odds ratio (OR) 0.42), and shorter duration of hospital stay (MD 1.1 days). The benefits of LH versus AH were speedier return to normal activities (MD 13.6 days), lower intraoperative blood loss (MD 45 cc), a smaller drop in haemoglobin (MD 0.55 g/dl), shorter hospital stay (MD 2.0 days), and fewer wound or abdominal wall infections (OR 0.31) at the cost of more urinary tract (bladder or ureter) injuries (OR 2.41) and longer operation time (MD 20.3 minutes). The benefits of LAVH versus TLH were fewer febrile episodes or unspecified infection (OR 3.77) and shorter operation time (MD 25.3 minutes). There was no evidence of benefits of LH versus VH and the operation time (MD 39.3 minutes) as well as substantial bleeding (OR 2.76) were increased in LH. For some important outcomes, the analyses were underpowered to detect important differences or they were simply not reported in trials. Data were absent for many important long-term outcome measures. Because of equal or significantly better outcomes on all parameters, VH should be performed in preference to AH where possible. Where VH is not possible, LH may avoid the need for AH however the length of the surgery increases as the extent of the surgery performed laparoscopically increases. The surgical approach to hysterectomy should be decided by the woman in discussion with her surgeon in light of the relative benefits and hazards.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Clinical Anatomy
                Clin. Anat.
                Wiley
                08973806
                October 2017
                October 2017
                August 22 2017
                : 30
                : 7
                : 946-952
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anatomical Sciences; St. George's University; Grenada West Indies
                [2 ]Seattle Science Foundation; Seattle Washington
                Article
                10.1002/ca.22962
                28762535
                b146c920-7aec-425c-ad9d-71b72035e8ec
                © 2017

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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