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      Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir in Patients with HCV and Severe Renal Impairment

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          Relation between renal dysfunction and cardiovascular outcomes after myocardial infarction.

          The presence of coexisting conditions has a substantial effect on the outcome of acute myocardial infarction. Renal failure is associated with one of the highest risks, but the influence of milder degrees of renal impairment is less well defined. As part of the Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (VALIANT), we identified 14,527 patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by clinical or radiologic signs of heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, or both, and a documented serum creatinine measurement. Patients were randomly assigned to receive captopril, valsartan, or both. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated by means of the four-component Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation, and the patients were grouped according to their estimated GFR. We used a 70-candidate variable model to adjust and compare overall mortality and composite cardiovascular events among four GFR groups. The distribution of estimated GFR was wide and normally shaped, with a mean (+/-SD) value of 70+/-21 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area. The prevalence of coexisting risk factors, prior cardiovascular disease, and a Killip class of more than I was greatest among patients with a reduced estimated GFR (less than 45.0 ml per minute per 1.73 m2), and the use of aspirin, beta-blockers, statins, or coronary-revascularization procedures was lowest in this group. The risk of death or the composite end point of death from cardiovascular causes, reinfarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, or resuscitation after cardiac arrest increased with declining estimated GFRs. Although the rate of renal events increased with declining estimated GFRs, the adverse outcomes were predominantly cardiovascular. Below 81.0 ml per minute per 1.73 m2, each reduction of the estimated GFR by 10 units was associated with a hazard ratio for death and nonfatal cardiovascular outcomes of 1.10 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.08 to 1.12), which was independent of the treatment assignment. Even mild renal disease, as assessed by the estimated GFR, should be considered a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications after a myocardial infarction. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Sofosbuvir for hepatitis C genotype 2 or 3 in patients without treatment options.

            Patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 or 3 for whom treatment with peginterferon is not an option, or who have not had a response to prior interferon treatment, currently have no approved treatment options. In phase 2 trials, regimens including the oral nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir have shown efficacy in patients with HCV genotype 2 or 3 infection. We conducted two randomized, phase 3 studies involving patients with chronic HCV genotype 2 or 3 infection. In one trial, patients for whom treatment with peginterferon was not an option received oral sofosbuvir and ribavirin (207 patients) or matching placebo (71) for 12 weeks. In a second trial, patients who had not had a response to prior interferon therapy received sofosbuvir and ribavirin for 12 weeks (103 patients) or 16 weeks (98). The primary end point was a sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after therapy. Among patients for whom treatment with peginterferon was not an option, the rate of a sustained virologic response was 78% (95% confidence interval [CI], 72 to 83) with sofosbuvir and ribavirin, as compared with 0% with placebo (P<0.001). Among previously treated patients, the rate of response was 50% with 12 weeks of treatment, as compared with 73% with 16 weeks of treatment (difference, -23 percentage points; 95% CI, -35 to -11; P<0.001). In both studies, response rates were lower among patients with genotype 3 infection than among those with genotype 2 infection and, among patients with genotype 3 infection, lower among those with cirrhosis than among those without cirrhosis. The most common adverse events were headache, fatigue, nausea, and insomnia; the overall rate of discontinuation of sofosbuvir was low (1 to 2%). In patients with HCV genotype 2 or 3 infection for whom treatment with peginterferon and ribavirin was not an option, 12 or 16 weeks of treatment with sofosbuvir and ribavirin was effective. Efficacy was increased among patients with HCV genotype 2 infection and those without cirrhosis. In previously treated patients with genotype 3 infection, 16 weeks of therapy was significantly more effective than 12 weeks. (Funded by Gilead Sciences; POSITRON and FUSION ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01542788 and NCT01604850, respectively.).
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              Sofosbuvir and ribavirin in HCV genotypes 2 and 3.

              In clinical trials, treatment with a combination of the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir and the antiviral drug ribavirin was associated with high response rates among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 infection, with lower response rates among patients with HCV genotype 3 infection. We conducted a study involving patients with HCV genotype 2 or 3 infection, some of whom had undergone previous treatment with an interferon-based regimen. We randomly assigned 91 patients with HCV genotype 2 infection and 328 with HCV genotype 3 infection, in a 4:1 ratio, to receive sofosbuvir-ribavirin or placebo for 12 weeks. On the basis of emerging data from phase 3 trials indicating that patients with HCV genotype 3 infection had higher response rates when they were treated for 16 weeks, as compared with 12 weeks, the study was unblinded, treatment for all patients with genotype 3 infection was extended to 24 weeks, the placebo group was terminated, and the goals of the study were redefined to be descriptive and not include hypothesis testing. The primary end point was a sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after the end of therapy. Of the 419 patients who were enrolled and treated, 21% had cirrhosis and 58% had received previous interferon-based treatment. The criterion for a sustained virologic response was met in 68 of 73 patients (93%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 85 to 98) with HCV genotype 2 infection who were treated for 12 weeks and in 213 of 250 patients (85%; 95% CI, 80 to 89) with HCV genotype 3 infection who were treated for 24 weeks. Among patients with HCV genotype 3 infection, response rates were 91% and 68% among those without and those with cirrhosis, respectively. The most common adverse events were headache, fatigue, and pruritus. Therapy with sofosbuvir-ribavirin for 12 weeks in patients with HCV genotype 2 infection and for 24 weeks in patients with HCV genotype 3 infection resulted in high rates of sustained virologic response. (Funded by Gilead Sciences; VALENCE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01682720.).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM/MMS)
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                October 12 2017
                October 12 2017
                : 377
                : 15
                : 1448-1455
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMoa1704053
                © 2017
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