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      Relationships between Protein Intake and Renal Function in a Japanese General Population: NIPPON DATA90


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          It has been considered that reducing protein intake is one of important measures to delay the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the relationship between protein intake and renal function is still uncertain, especially in relatively healthy general population.


          7404 individuals (3099 men and 4305 women) who participated in both National Survey on Circulatory Disorders and National Nutrition Survey in 1990 and were free from past history of renal diseases were included in the present study. We estimated sex-specific age- and multivariate-adjusted glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and odds ratios for the presence of CKD according to the quartiles of protein (total, animal, vegetable) intake per body weight (kg).


          There were significant differences in each protein intake among the age groups in both men and women. Both participants with and without CKD took more protein intake than that of each recommended level. There were positive relationships between GFR and the quartiles of each protein intake in both sexes. The odds ratios for the presence of CKD were significantly decreased in the higher quartile of protein intake in women.


          The higher protein intake was associated with higher GFR in both sexes and low prevalence of CKD in women. However, further studies are needed to conclude the relationships between protein intake and renal function.

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          Most cited references21

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          Dietary protein intake and the progressive nature of kidney disease: the role of hemodynamically mediated glomerular injury in the pathogenesis of progressive glomerular sclerosis in aging, renal ablation, and intrinsic renal disease.

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            Estimation of glomerular filtration rate by the MDRD study equation modified for Japanese patients with chronic kidney disease.

            Accurate estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is crucial for the detection of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In clinical practice, GFR is estimated from serum creatinine using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equation or the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equation instead of the time-consuming method of measured clearance for exogenous markers such as inulin. In the present study, the equations originally developed for a Caucasian population were tested in Japanese CKD patients, and modified with the Japanese coefficient determined by the data. The abbreviated MDRD study and CG equations were tested in 248 Japanese CKD patients and compared with measured inulin clearance (Cin) and estimated GFR (eGFR). The Japanese coefficient was determined by minimizing the sum of squared errors between eGFR and Cin. Serum creatinine values of the enzyme method in the present study were calibrated to values of the noncompensated Jaffé method by adding 0.207 mg/dl, because the original MDRD study equation was determined by the data for serum creatinine values measured by the noncompensated Jaffé method. The abbreviated MDRD study equation modified with the Japanese coefficient was validated in another set of 269 CKD patients. There was a significant discrepancy between measured Cin and eGFR by the 1.0xMDRD or CG equations. The MDRD study equation modified with the Japanese coefficient (0.881xMDRD) determined for Japanese CKD patients yielded lower mean difference and higher accuracy for GFR estimation. In particular, in Cin 30-59 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), the mean difference was significantly smaller with the 0.881xMDRD equation than that with the 1.0xMDRD study equation (1.9 vs 7.9 ml/min per 1.73 m(2); P < 0.01), and the accuracy was significantly higher, with 60% vs 39% of the points deviating within 15%, and 97% vs 87% of points within 50%, respectively (both P < 0.01). Validation with the different data set showed the correlation between eGFR and Cin was better with the 0.881xMDRD equation than with the 1.0xMDRD study equation. In Cin less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), the accuracy was significantly higher, with 85% vs 69% of the points deviating within 50% (P < 0.01), respectively. The mean difference was also significantly smaller (P < 0.01). However, GFR values calculated by the 0.881xMDRD equation were still underestimated in the range of Cin over 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). Although the Japanese coefficient improves the accuracy of GFR estimation of the original MDRD study equation, a new equation is needed for more accurate estimation of GFR in Japanese patients with CKD stages 3 and 4.
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              Renal, metabolic and hormonal responses to ingestion of animal and vegetable proteins.

              Renal and hormonal responses were studied in a group of healthy individuals fed, in random order, for three weeks, a vegetable protein diet (N = 10), an animal protein diet (N = 10), or an animal protein diet supplemented with fiber (N = 7), all containing the same amount of total protein (chronic study). In seven additional subjects the acute renal, metabolic and hormonal response to ingestion of a meat or soya load of equivalent total protein content was investigated (acute study). In the chronic study GRF, RPF and fractional clearance of albumin and IgG were significantly higher on the animal than the vegetable protein diets (GFR: 121 +/- 4 vs. 111 +/- 4 ml/min/1.73 m2, P less than 0.001; RPF: 634 +/- 29 vs. 559 +/- 26 ml/min/1.73 m2, P less than 0.001; theta alb: 19.5 +/- 3.1 vs. 10.2 +/- 1.6 x 10(-7), P less than 0.01; theta IgG: 11.6 +/- 3.1 vs. 7.5 +/- 1.7 x 10(-7), P less than 0.05). Renal vascular resistance was lower on the animal than vegetable protein diet (82 +/- 5 vs. 97 +/- 5 mmHg/min/liter; P less than 0.001). Fiber supplementation to APD did not have any effect on the renal variables measured which were indistinguishable from APD. In the acute study, GFR and RPF both rose significantly by approximately 16% (P less than 0.005) and approximately 14% (P less than 0.05), respectively, after the meat load, while RVR fell by approximately 12% (P less than 0.05). There were no significant changes in these parameters following the soya load.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

                Author and article information

                J Epidemiol
                J Epidemiol
                Journal of Epidemiology
                Japan Epidemiological Association
                5 May 2010
                30 March 2010
                : 20
                : Suppl 3
                : S537-S543
                [1 ]Lifestyle-Related Disease Prevention Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan
                [2 ]Department of Preventive Cardiology, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Japan
                [3 ]The First Institute for Health Promotion and Health Care, Japan Anti-tuberculosis Association, Tokyo, Japan
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence. Dr. Aya Higashiyama, Lifestyle-Related Disease Prevention Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta-tsukinowachou, Otsu, Shiga, Ohtsu 520-2192, Japan (e-mail: ahigashi@ 123456hsp.ncvc.go.jp ).
                © 2010 Japan Epidemiological Association.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                : 28 December 2009
                : 15 February 2010
                Cardiovascular Disease

                ckd,gfr,odds ratio,cross-sectional study,nutrition
                ckd, gfr, odds ratio, cross-sectional study, nutrition


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