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      Paclitaxel reduces formation of hypertrophic scars in the rabbit ear model

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          Abstract

          Background and objective

          The onset and progression of pathological scarring involves multiple cytokines and complex mechanisms. However, hyperplasia of fibroblasts and neovascularization plays important roles, which can be inhibited by paclitaxel. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of paclitaxel in the treatment of hypertrophic scars on rabbit ears.

          Methods

          Rabbit ear models of hypertrophic scars were established to observe the therapeutic effects of paclitaxel at different concentrations (12 mg/L, 24 mg/L, 48 mg/L, 96 mg/L, 18 mg/L, 54 mg/L, 162 mg/L, 486 mg/L, 30 mg/L, 150 mg/L, 750 mg/L, 3,750 mg/L). The outcome measures included hypertrophic index (HI), density of fibroblasts, density of collagenous fibers, and microvessel density.

          Results

          In comparison with the control group, the concentrations of 96 mg/L, 150 mg/L, and 162 mg/L significantly reduce the formation of hypertrophic scars in the rabbit ear models. However, local necrosis was found in the rabbit ear models treated with paclitaxel solution >400 mg/L.

          Conclusion

          Paclitaxel has strong inhibitory effects on the hyperplasia of fibroblasts, deposition of collagen, and microangiogenesis in hypertrophic scars on rabbit ears within the concentration range from 48 mg/L to 162 mg/L, without causing local necrosis.

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          Most cited references 15

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          The microtubule-affecting drug paclitaxel has antiangiogenic activity.

          Endothelial cell migration is a critical event during angiogenesis, and inhibitors of cell motility can affect the angiogenic process. Paclitaxel (Taxol(R)), a microtubule-stabilizing antineoplastic cytotoxic drug, inhibits motility and invasiveness of several cell types. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of paclitaxel on endothelial cell functions and on angiogenesis. In vivo, paclitaxel (20-28 mg/kg i.v.) significantly inhibited the angiogenic response induced by tumor cell supernatant embedded in a pellet of reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel) injected s.c. into C57BL/6N mice. In vitro, paclitaxel inhibited endothelial cell proliferation, motility, invasiveness, and cord formation on Matrigel in a dose-dependent manner. The antiangiogenic activity of paclitaxel was not linked to its cytotoxicity, since inhibition of endothelial cell chemotaxis and invasiveness occurred at drug concentrations which did not affect endothelial cell proliferation. Another cytotoxic drug, cisplatin, that inhibited endothelial cell proliferation in vitro, did not affect angiogenesis in vivo. These data indicate that paclitaxel has a strong antiangiogenic activity, a property that might contribute to its antineoplastic activity in vivo.
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            Updated international clinical recommendations on scar management: part 2--algorithms for scar prevention and treatment.

            In 2002, an international advisory panel was convened to assess the scientific literature and develop evidence-based guidance for the prevention and treatment of pathologic scarring. Emerging clinical data, new treatment options, and technical advances warranted a renewed literature search and review of the initial advisory panel recommendations.
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              Acute and chronic animal models for excessive dermal scarring: quantitative studies.

              Excessive scarring in the form of keloids and hypertrophic scars continues to be a clinical problem for some patients. The lack of an animal model for such scarring has been an obstacle to studying the cellular and molecular biology of these entities. Previous observations made by the authors that some surgical scars in the rabbit ear remain raised for months after wounding prompted us to investigate whether the rabbit ear might provide a model by which to study excessive dermal scarring. After establishing the model in preliminary study, 40 excisional wounds, 6 mm in diameter, were created over the ventral surface of rabbit ears. Elevated scars were treated with either intralesional triamcinolone acetonide or saline at day 16 postwounding. On day 22, 25 scar wounds were used for thorough histomorphometric analysis, 15 wounds were eliminated prior to analysis because of invagination of epithelial tissue, which made analysis difficult. Total area of scar and Hypertrophic Index, a ratio comparing scar prominence with the thickness of adjacent unwounded tissue, were measured for 25 (62 percent) of the resulting scars. Both total area of scar and Hypertrophic Index were found to be significantly decreased in the steroid-treated group (p < 0.02 and < 0.03, respectively). In a chronic form of this model, in which larger excisions were taken, an excessive accumulation of both new collagen and cartilage over 9 months was observed. An animal model for excessive dermal scarring that allows quantitation of scar formation and, at an early stage, can be modulated in a predictable way with intralesional corticosteroid treatment is presented. This model may parallel hypertrophic scarring in humans and thus might provide a tool by which to study its pathophysiology and objectively evaluate therapeutic modalities.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2015
                27 July 2015
                : 11
                : 1089-1095
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Physical Therapy, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Orthopedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Xing-lin Wang, Department of Physical Therapy, Chinese PLA General Hospital, No 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 152 1088 9919, Fax +86 10 6693 7551, Email wangxl301@ 123456126.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                tcrm-11-1089
                10.2147/TCRM.S82961
                4524470
                © 2015 Huang et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Medicine

                hypertrophic scar, paclitaxel, rabbit ear model

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