Objective Hysteroscopy is a minimally invasive gynecologic technique that is widely practiced in outpatient procedures. The choice of anesthesia is a key factor for the surgical outcome and postoperative recovery. This study was conducted to assess the effects of different anesthetic modalities based on dexmedetomidine in outpatient hysteroscopic surgery anesthesia. Methods We did a systematic review and network meta-analysis of outpatient hysteroscopic surgery anesthesia. We searched Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane-Library from database inception to December 31, 2021. Duplicate literature was excluded and screened separately for initial screening at three tiers: article title, abstract, and full text before deciding whether to include in this study against the above criteria. Results after analysis of categorical variables were expressed as ORR Ratio (95% CI) and continuous variables were expressed as Mean Difference (95% CI). Data collation and analyses were performed using the gemtc package in the R language. Results Four trials were finally included with data for 301 participants, three anesthetic drugs, and five anesthetic modalities. A fixed-effects model was used for the different anesthesia modalities without significant heterogeneity (all I2<20%) in the analysis of adverse events (AEs), the incidence of respiratory depression, operative time, and time in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Remimazolam tosylate was associated with a lower incidence of AEs versus dexmedetomidine, and significant differences between dexmedetomidine and propofol were absent. Propofol and various doses of remimazolam tosylate resulted in a lower incidence of respiratory depression versus dexmedetomidine, with an absence of differences between propofol and dexmedetomidine. The operative time for different anesthetic modalities was, in descending order, dexmedetomidine < remimazolam tosylate (0.60 mg/kg/h <0.48 mg/kg/h) < propofol < remimazolam tosylate (1.00 mg/kg/h), despite the absence of intergroup differences. Propofol was associated with a longer time in PACU versus dexmedetomidine and remimazolam tosylate (1.00 mg/kg/h); those of dexmedetomidine and remimazolam tosylate (1.00 mg/kg/h) were similar. The time in PACU for different anesthetic modalities, in descending order, was dexmedetomidine < remimazolam tosylate (1.00 mg/kg/h) < propofol. Propofol was associated with a longer time in PACU versus dexmedetomidine and remimazolam tosylate. Conclusion In outpatient hysteroscopic surgery anesthesia, dexmedetomidine was associated with a higher incidence of AEs and respiratory depression and a shorter operative time and time in PACU versus remimazolam tosylate and propofol. Remimazolam tosylate showed safety benefits with a similar duration of PACU stay versus dexmedetomidine. Therefore, the choice of anesthetic drugs in outpatient surgery requires consideration of the patient's conditions and preferences.