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      Death by design: apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy.

      1 ,
      Current opinion in cell biology
      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          Apoptosis is the principal mechanism by which cells are physiologically eliminated in metazoan organisms. During apoptotic death, cells are neatly carved up by caspases and packaged into apoptotic bodies as a mechanism to avoid immune activation. Recently, necrosis, once thought of as simply a passive, unorganized way to die, has emerged as an alternate form of programmed cell death whose activation might have important biological consequences, including the induction of an inflammatory response. Autophagy has also been suggested as a possible mechanism for non-apoptotic death despite evidence from many species that autophagy represents a survival strategy in times of stress. Recent advances have helped to define the function of and mechanism for programmed necrosis and the role of autophagy in cell survival and suicide.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Curr Opin Cell Biol
          Current opinion in cell biology
          Elsevier BV
          0955-0674
          0955-0674
          Dec 2004
          : 16
          : 6
          Affiliations
          [1 ] University of Pennsylvania, Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, 450 BRB II/III, 421 Curie Blvd, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.
          Article
          S0955-0674(04)00147-4
          10.1016/j.ceb.2004.09.011
          15530778
          b1a94be2-5569-4171-810f-d35e8063a9d0
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