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      Initiation of actinorhodin export in Streptomyces coelicolor

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          Abstract

          Many microorganisms produce molecules having antibiotic activity and expel them into the environment, presumably enhancing their ability to compete with their neighbours. Given that these molecules are often toxic to the producer, mechanisms must exist to ensure that the assembly of the export apparatus accompanies or precedes biosynthesis. Streptomyces coelicolor produces the polyketide antibiotic actinorhodin in a multistep pathway involving enzymes encoded by genes that are clustered together. Embedded within the cluster are genes for actinorhodin export, two of which, actR and actA resemble the classic tetR and tetA repressor/efflux pump-encoding gene pairs that confer resistance to tetracycline. Like TetR, which represses tetA, ActR is a repressor of actA. We have identified several molecules that can relieve repression by ActR. Importantly (S)-DNPA (an intermediate in the actinorhodin biosynthetic pathway) and kalafungin (a molecule related to the intermediate dihydrokalafungin), are especially potent ActR ligands. This suggests that along with the mature antibiotic(s), intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway might activate expression of the export genes thereby coupling export to biosynthesis. We suggest that this could be a common feature in the production of many bioactive natural products.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Complete genome sequence of the model actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

          Streptomyces coelicolor is a representative of the group of soil-dwelling, filamentous bacteria responsible for producing most natural antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. Here we report the 8,667,507 base pair linear chromosome of this organism, containing the largest number of genes so far discovered in a bacterium. The 7,825 predicted genes include more than 20 clusters coding for known or predicted secondary metabolites. The genome contains an unprecedented proportion of regulatory genes, predominantly those likely to be involved in responses to external stimuli and stresses, and many duplicated gene sets that may represent 'tissue-specific' isoforms operating in different phases of colonial development, a unique situation for a bacterium. An ancient synteny was revealed between the central 'core' of the chromosome and the whole chromosome of pathogens Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The genome sequence will greatly increase our understanding of microbial life in the soil as well as aiding the generation of new drug candidates by genetic engineering.
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            Construction and characterization of amplifiable multicopy DNA cloning vehicles derived from the P15A cryptic miniplasmid.

            Construction and characterization of a class of multicopy plasmid cloning vehicles containing the replication system of miniplasmid P15A are described. The constructed plasmids have cleavage sites within antibiotic resistance genes for a variety of commonly employed site-specific endonucleases, permitting convenient use of the insertional inactivation procedure for the selection of clones that contain hybrid DNA molecules. Although the constructed plasmids showed DNA sequence homology with the ColE1 plasmid within the replication region, were amplifiable by chloramphenicol or spectinomycin, required DNA polymerase I for replication, and shared other replication properties with ColE1, they were nevertheless compatible with ColE1. P15A-derived plasmids were not self-transmissible and were mobilized poorly by Hfr strains; however, mobilization was complemented by the presence of a ColE1 plasmid within the same cell.
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              Mechanisms underlying expression of Tn10 encoded tetracycline resistance.

               C Berens,  W Hillen (1993)
              Tetracycline-resistance determinants encoding active efflux of the drug are widely distributed in gram-negative bacteria and unique with respect to genetic organization and regulation of expression. Each determinant consists of two genes called tetA and tetR, which are oriented with divergent polarity, and between them is a central regulatory region with overlapping promoters and operators. The amino acid sequences of the encoded proteins are 43-78% identical. The resistance protein TetA is a tetracycline/metal-proton antiporter located in the cytoplasmic membrane, while the regulatory protein TetR is a tetracycline inducible repressor. TetR binds via a helix-turn-helix motif to the two tet operators, resulting in repression of both genes. A detailed model of the repressor-operator complex has been proposed on the basis of biochemical and genetic data. The tet genes are differentially regulated so that repressor synthesis can occur before the resistance protein is expressed. This has been demonstrated for the Tn10-encoded tet genes and may be a common property of all tet determinants, as suggested by the similar locations of operators with respect to promoters. Induction is mediated by a tetracycline-metal complex and requires only nanomolar concentrations of the drug. This is the most sensitive effector-inducible system of transcriptional regulation known to date. The crystal structure of the TetR-tetracycline/metal complex shows the Tet repressor in the induced, non-DNA binding conformation. The structural interpretation of many noninducible TetR mutants has offered insight into the conformational changes associated with the switch between inducing and repressing structures of TetR. Tc is buried in the core of TetR, where it is held in place by multiple contacts to the protein.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecular Microbiology
                Molecular Microbiology
                Wiley
                0950-382X
                1365-2958
                February 2007
                December 11 2006
                February 2007
                : 63
                : 4
                : 951-961
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, L8N 3Z5, Canada.
                [2 ]Department of Medical Genetics and Microbiology, University of Toronto, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A8, Canada.
                Article
                10.1111/j.1365-2958.2006.05559.x
                17338074
                © 2007

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