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      The Amyloid-β Oligomer Hypothesis: Beginning of the Third Decade

      review-article
      , , , *
      Journal of Alzheimer's Disease
      IOS Press
      Alzheimer’s disease, amyloid-β peptide, diagnostics, etiology, model systems, oligomers, prions, receptors, structure-function, tau, therapeutics

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          Abstract

          The amyloid-β oligomer (AβO) hypothesis was introduced in 1998. It proposed that the brain damage leading to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) was instigated by soluble, ligand-like AβOs. This hypothesis was based on the discovery that fibril-free synthetic preparations of AβOs were potent CNS neurotoxins that rapidly inhibited long-term potentiation and, with time, caused selective nerve cell death (Lambert et al., 1998). The mechanism was attributed to disrupted signaling involving the tyrosine-protein kinase Fyn, mediated by an unknown toxin receptor. Over 4,000 articles concerning AβOs have been published since then, including more than 400 reviews. AβOs have been shown to accumulate in an AD-dependent manner in human and animal model brain tissue and, experimentally, to impair learning and memory and instigate major facets of AD neuropathology, including tau pathology, synapse deterioration and loss, inflammation, and oxidative damage. As reviewed by Hayden and Teplow in 2013, the AβO hypothesis “has all but supplanted the amyloid cascade.” Despite the emerging understanding of the role played by AβOs in AD pathogenesis, AβOs have not yet received the clinical attention given to amyloid plaques, which have been at the core of major attempts at therapeutics and diagnostics but are no longer regarded as the most pathogenic form of Aβ. However, if the momentum of AβO research continues, particularly efforts to elucidate key aspects of structure, a clear path to a successful disease modifying therapy can be envisioned. Ensuring that lessons learned from recent, late-stage clinical failures are applied appropriately throughout therapeutic development will further enable the likelihood of a successful therapy in the near-term.

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          Most cited references326

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          Common structure of soluble amyloid oligomers implies common mechanism of pathogenesis.

          Soluble oligomers are common to most amyloids and may represent the primary toxic species of amyloids, like the Abeta peptide in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we show that all of the soluble oligomers tested display a common conformation-dependent structure that is unique to soluble oligomers regardless of sequence. The in vitro toxicity of soluble oligomers is inhibited by oligomer-specific antibody. Soluble oligomers have a unique distribution in human AD brain that is distinct from fibrillar amyloid. These results indicate that different types of soluble amyloid oligomers have a common structure and suggest they share a common mechanism of toxicity.
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            A specific amyloid-beta protein assembly in the brain impairs memory.

            Memory function often declines with age, and is believed to deteriorate initially because of changes in synaptic function rather than loss of neurons. Some individuals then go on to develop Alzheimer's disease with neurodegeneration. Here we use Tg2576 mice, which express a human amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) variant linked to Alzheimer's disease, to investigate the cause of memory decline in the absence of neurodegeneration or amyloid-beta protein amyloidosis. Young Tg2576 mice ( 14 months old) form abundant neuritic plaques containing amyloid-beta (refs 3-6). We found that memory deficits in middle-aged Tg2576 mice are caused by the extracellular accumulation of a 56-kDa soluble amyloid-beta assembly, which we term Abeta*56 (Abeta star 56). Abeta*56 purified from the brains of impaired Tg2576 mice disrupts memory when administered to young rats. We propose that Abeta*56 impairs memory independently of plaques or neuronal loss, and may contribute to cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease.
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              Neurofibrillary tangles but not senile plaques parallel duration and severity of Alzheimer's disease.

              We studied the accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and senile plaques (SPs) in 10 Alzheimer's disease patients who had been examined during life. We counted NFTs and SPs in 13 cytoarchitectural regions representing limbic, primary sensory, and association cortices, and in subcortical neurotransmitter-specific areas. The degree of neuropathologic change was compared with the severity of dementia, as assessed by the Blessed Dementia Scale and duration of illness. We found that (1) the severity of dementia was positively related to the number of NFTs in neocortex, but not to the degree of SP deposition; (2) NFTs accumulate in a consistent pattern reflecting hierarchic vulnerability of individual cytoarchitectural fields; (3) NFTs appeared in the entorhinal cortex, CA1/subiculum field of the hippocampal formation, and the amygdala early in the disease process; and (4) the degree of SP deposition was also related to a hierarchic vulnerability of certain brain areas to accumulate SPs, but the pattern of SP distribution was different from that of NFT.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Alzheimers Dis
                J. Alzheimers Dis
                JAD
                Journal of Alzheimer's Disease
                IOS Press (Nieuwe Hemweg 6B, 1013 BG Amsterdam, The Netherlands )
                1387-2877
                1875-8908
                18 May 2018
                12 June 2018
                2018
                : 64
                : Suppl 1
                : S567-S610
                Affiliations
                [1]Department of Neurobiology, Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer’s Disease Center, International Institute for Nanotechnology, and Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University , Evanston, IL, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence to: Dr. William Klein, Department of Neurobiology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA. Tel: +1 847 491 5510; E-mail: wklein@ 123456northwestern.edu .
                Article
                JAD179941
                10.3233/JAD-179941
                6004937
                29843241
                b1bf706d-c2a0-43b6-8d1c-be1dec200fe6
                © 2018 –IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Categories
                Review

                alzheimer’s disease,amyloid-β peptide,diagnostics,etiology,model systems,oligomers,prions,receptors,structure-function,tau,therapeutics

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