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      Hungarian pre-service teachers’ motivation to become English teachers: Validating a questionnaire


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          Background and aims

          This study sets out to validate a new questionnaire constructed to reliably measure pre-service teachers’ motivation to become English teachers. Recently, language teacher motivation has been an emerging field of inquiry within the field of second language acquisition. However, little attention has been paid to pre-service teachers, many of whom are met by demotivating conditions once they start teaching.


          Likert-type scales were used to collect data. The participants of the study ( N = 51) were pre-service English teachers from Hungary. The main data analysis procedures included principal component analysis, reliability analysis, descriptive statistical analysis, and regression analysis.

          Results and conclusions

          Thirteen variables proved to be reliably measurable, each having a Cronbach’s α value of >.60. The members of the sample were found to have relatively high levels of motivated behavior as to both English language learning and learning to become teachers. Based on the questionnaire results, an initial version of the internal structure of pre-service English teachers’ motivation is presented; implications and plans for the next steps of the larger research project are outlined.

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          Most cited references21

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          Age-Related Differences in the Motivation of Learning English as a Foreign Language: Attitudes, Selves, and Motivated Learning Behavior

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            The interplay of possible language teacher selves in professional development choices

            Empirical research on possible selves proliferates in the literature on psychology, yet it is only in the latter half of the 2000s that possible selves were exploited in applied linguistics fields. Kubanyiova’s (2007, 2009) recent mixed-methods study introduced the concept of ‘possible language teacher selves’ as a construct through which to explore language teacher development. Aiming to add to empirical findings in the area, this qualitative study was conducted to investigate the roles that possible language teacher selves play in the teacher development choices of seven in-service Korean English teachers. Findings highlighted clearly constructed actual and possible language teachers selves. Lack of language self-efficacy was found to be near synonymous to lack of teaching self-efficacy for these participants, and the negative affect surrounding this lack of language self-efficacy emerged as the primary drive to engage in teacher development in this context. Two key motivational patterns of the participants’ possible language teacher selves emerged: teachers were either guided by a central need to repair perceived inadequacies of the self, or to enhance the self. A third motive, adhering to normative obligations, was found to be the least significant in driving choices for teacher development.
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              14. Teachstrong: The Power of Teacher Resilience for Second Language Practitioners


                Author and article information

                Journal of Adult Learning, Knowledge and Innovation
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                12 November 2018
                March 2018
                : 2
                : 1
                : 19-32
                [ 1 ]International Studies Center, Meisei University , Hino, Japan
                [ 2 ]Doctoral Program in Language Pedagogy, Eötvös Loránd University , Budapest, Hungary
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Dávid Smid, International Studies Center, Meisei University, 2–1–1 Hodokubo, Hino, Tokyo 191-8506, Japan; Phone: +81 042 591 6557 ext. 52391; e-mail: smiddav@ 123456yahoo.com
                © 2018 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                : 12 July 2018
                : 31 July 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 6, Equations: 0, References: 36, Pages: 14
                Funding sources: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
                ORIGINAL ARTICLE

                Evolutionary Biology,Medicine,Psychology,Educational research & Statistics,Social & Behavioral Sciences
                pilot study,English,Hungary,language teacher motivation,language-learning motivation,pre-service teachers


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