Introduction: In a few types of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), scleral buckling (SB) has a lower success, and, here, pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) is a good alternative option. This survey reviews the indications and the surgical outcome of primary PPV with internal tamponade. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 205 eyes operated by primary PPV for RRD at the Department of Ophthalmology of the Philipps University Marburg between the years 1990 and 1997. The indications of PPV were: holes greater than 90°; holes posterior to the equator; proliferative vitreoretinopathy grade C; pseudophakic status. Results: A complete reattachment of the retina after absorption of the gas or after silicone oil removal was achieved by 1 operation in 146 eyes (71.2%) and in 195 eyes (95.2%) by a second intervention. Conclusion: Although SB is the standard procedure for the treatment of RRD, complicated cases can be treated successfully with primary PPV.