Forty primary splenic angiosarcomas occurring in 21 men and 19 women, 19-84 years old (median 59 years) are reported. Patients presented with splenomegaly (35 of 38, 92%), abdominal pain (33 of 40, 83%), and systemic symptoms such as fatigue (2 of 40, 5%), fever (4 of 40, 10%), and/or weight loss (16 of 40, 40%). Five (13%) experienced splenic rupture associated with hemoperitoneum. Abnormal laboratory findings included cytopenia (31 of 34, 91%), leukocytosis (8 of 21, 38%), and thrombocytosis (1/39, 3%). Most spleens weighed 500-1,000 g (mean, 1,180 g). The cut splenic surfaces showed multiple hemorrhagic nodules that were frequently associated with infarction, although some had a diffuse pattern of involvement. Microscopically, there were a variety of histologic patterns displayed by the vasoformative component. A honeycomb or sponge-like pattern was common in some, whereas others simulated a cavernous hemangioma or normal splenic sinuses (pseudosinusoidal pattern). Papillary endothelial tufts and solid proliferations of spindled to round to epithelioid cells were also seen. Factor VIII-related antigen was detected in 19 of 23 cases, BMA-120 in 18 of 23, UEA-1 receptor in 18 of 23, and vimentin in 23 of 23 as well as CD68 antigen in 1 of 23 cases. S-100 protein and cytokeratin were not found in any of the 23 cases studied. Metastases in 22 of 32 patients (69%) were to the liver (13 patients), bone or bone marrow (7 patients), lymph nodes (1 patient), and brain (1 patient). Three patients had concomitant malignancies and one had a prior history of a mixed B-cell lymphoma 5 years previously that had been treated with chemotherapy. Follow-up in 38 patients revealed that 30 (79%) are dead at a median interval of 6 months (range 0-48 months) and 8 are alive 5-21 months after diagnosis. These findings indicate that splenic angiosarcoma is an aggressive neoplasm with a high metastatic rate and an abysmal prognosis. Recognition of the wide range of histologic patterns is of diagnostic value but no apparent prognostic significance.