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      Primary angiosarcoma of the spleen. A clinicopathologic study of 40 cases.

      The American Journal of Surgical Pathology

      Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Biological Markers, analysis, Female, Hemangiosarcoma, chemistry, pathology, physiopathology, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, Male, Middle Aged, Splenic Neoplasms

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          Abstract

          Forty primary splenic angiosarcomas occurring in 21 men and 19 women, 19-84 years old (median 59 years) are reported. Patients presented with splenomegaly (35 of 38, 92%), abdominal pain (33 of 40, 83%), and systemic symptoms such as fatigue (2 of 40, 5%), fever (4 of 40, 10%), and/or weight loss (16 of 40, 40%). Five (13%) experienced splenic rupture associated with hemoperitoneum. Abnormal laboratory findings included cytopenia (31 of 34, 91%), leukocytosis (8 of 21, 38%), and thrombocytosis (1/39, 3%). Most spleens weighed 500-1,000 g (mean, 1,180 g). The cut splenic surfaces showed multiple hemorrhagic nodules that were frequently associated with infarction, although some had a diffuse pattern of involvement. Microscopically, there were a variety of histologic patterns displayed by the vasoformative component. A honeycomb or sponge-like pattern was common in some, whereas others simulated a cavernous hemangioma or normal splenic sinuses (pseudosinusoidal pattern). Papillary endothelial tufts and solid proliferations of spindled to round to epithelioid cells were also seen. Factor VIII-related antigen was detected in 19 of 23 cases, BMA-120 in 18 of 23, UEA-1 receptor in 18 of 23, and vimentin in 23 of 23 as well as CD68 antigen in 1 of 23 cases. S-100 protein and cytokeratin were not found in any of the 23 cases studied. Metastases in 22 of 32 patients (69%) were to the liver (13 patients), bone or bone marrow (7 patients), lymph nodes (1 patient), and brain (1 patient). Three patients had concomitant malignancies and one had a prior history of a mixed B-cell lymphoma 5 years previously that had been treated with chemotherapy. Follow-up in 38 patients revealed that 30 (79%) are dead at a median interval of 6 months (range 0-48 months) and 8 are alive 5-21 months after diagnosis. These findings indicate that splenic angiosarcoma is an aggressive neoplasm with a high metastatic rate and an abysmal prognosis. Recognition of the wide range of histologic patterns is of diagnostic value but no apparent prognostic significance.

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