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      Orphan Nuclear Receptor Estrogen-Related Receptor γ (ERRγ) Is Key Regulator of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis

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          Abstract

          Glucose homeostasis is tightly controlled by hormonal regulation of hepatic glucose production. Dysregulation of this system is often associated with insulin resistance and diabetes, resulting in hyperglycemia in mammals. Here, we show that the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is a novel downstream mediator of glucagon action in hepatic gluconeogenesis and demonstrate a beneficial impact of the inverse agonist GSK5182. Hepatic ERRγ expression was increased by fasting-dependent activation of the cAMP-response element-binding protein-CRTC2 pathway. Overexpression of ERRγ induced Pck1 and G6PC gene expression and glucose production in primary hepatocytes, whereas abolition of ERRγ gene expression attenuated forskolin-mediated induction of gluconeogenic gene expression. Deletion and mutation analyses of the Pck1 promoter showed that ERRγ directly regulates the Pck1 gene transcription via ERR response elements of the Pck1 promoter as confirmed by ChIP assay and in vivo imaging analysis. We also demonstrate that GSK5182, an inverse agonist of ERRγ, specifically inhibits the transcriptional activity of ERRγ in a PGC-1α dependent manner. Finally, the ERRγ inverse agonist ameliorated hyperglycemia through inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis in db/db mice. Control of hepatic glucose production by an ERRγ-specific inverse agonist is a new potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

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          Most cited references 45

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          The estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRalpha) functions in PPARgamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha)-induced mitochondrial biogenesis.

          Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRalpha) is one of the first orphan nuclear receptors to be identified, yet its physiological functions are still unclear. We show here that ERRalpha is an effector of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1alpha [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) coactivator 1alpha], and that it regulates the expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial biogenesis. Inhibition of ERRalpha compromises the ability of PGC-1alpha to induce the expression of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins and to increase mitochondrial DNA content. A constitutively active form of ERRalpha is sufficient to elicit both responses. ERRalpha binding sites are present in the transcriptional control regions of ERRalpha/PGC-1alpha-induced genes and contribute to the transcriptional response to PGC-1alpha. The ERRalpha-regulated genes described here have been reported to be expressed at reduced levels in humans that are insulin-resistant. Thus, changes in ERRalpha activity could be linked to pathological changes in metabolic disease, such as diabetes.
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            PGC-1 promotes insulin resistance in liver through PPAR-alpha-dependent induction of TRB-3.

            Insulin resistance is a major hallmark in the development of type 2 diabetes, which is characterized by an impaired ability of insulin to inhibit glucose output from the liver and to promote glucose uptake in muscle. The nuclear hormone receptor coactivator PGC-1 (peroxisome proliferator-activated (PPAR)-gamma coactivator-1) has been implicated in the onset of type 2 diabetes. Hepatic PGC-1 expression is elevated in mouse models of this disease, where it promotes constitutive activation of gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation through its association with the nuclear hormone receptors HNF-4 and PPAR-alpha, respectively. Here we show that PGC-1-deficient mice, generated by adenoviral delivery of PGC-1 RNA interference (RNAi) to the liver, experience fasting hypoglycemia. Hepatic insulin sensitivity was enhanced in PGC-1-deficient mice, reflecting in part the reduced expression of the mammalian tribbles homolog TRB-3, a fasting-inducible inhibitor of the serine-threonine kinase Akt/PKB (ref. 6). We show here that, in the liver, TRB-3 is a target for PPAR-alpha. Knockdown of hepatic TRB-3 expression improved glucose tolerance, whereas hepatic overexpression of TRB-3 reversed the insulin-sensitive phenotype of PGC-1-deficient mice. These results indicate a link between nuclear hormone receptor and insulin signaling pathways, and suggest a potential role for TRB-3 inhibitors in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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              Recent advances in mechanisms regulating glucose oxidation at the level of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by PDKs.

              The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate, linking glycolysis to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and fatty acid (FA) synthesis. Knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate PDC activity is important, because PDC inactivation is crucial for glucose conservation when glucose is scarce, whereas adequate PDC activity is required to allow both ATP and FA production from glucose. The mechanisms that control mammalian PDC activity include its phosphorylation (inactivation) by a family of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs 1-4) and its dephosphorylation (activation, reactivation) by the pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatases (PDPs 1 and 2). Isoform-specific differences in kinetic parameters, regulation, and phosphorylation site specificity of the PDKs introduce variations in the regulation of PDC activity in differing endocrine and metabolic states. In this review, we summarize recent significant advances in our knowledge of the mechanisms regulating PDC with emphasis on the PDKs, in particular PDK4, whose expression is linked with sustained changes in tissue lipid handling and which may represent an attractive target for pharmacological interventions aimed at modulating whole body glucose, lipid, and lactate homeostasis in disease states.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Biological Chemistry
                J. Biol. Chem.
                American Society for Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (ASBMB)
                0021-9258
                1083-351X
                June 22 2012
                June 22 2012
                June 22 2012
                May 01 2012
                : 287
                : 26
                : 21628-21639
                Article
                10.1074/jbc.M111.315168
                3381127
                22549789
                © 2012

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