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      A clioquinol-containing Pluronic ® F127 polymeric micelle system is effective in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in a murine model Translated title: Un système à micelles polymériques Pluronic ® F127 contenant du clioquinol est efficace pour le traitement de la leishmaniose viscérale dans un modèle murin

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          A clioquinol (ICHQ)-containing Pluronic ® F127 polymeric micelle system (ICHQ/Mic) was recently shown to be effective against Leishmania amazonensis infection in a murine model. In the present study, ICHQ/Mic was tested against L. infantum infection. BALB/c mice ( n = 12 per group) were infected with L. infantum stationary promastigotes through subcutaneous injection and, 45 days after challenge, received saline or were treated via the subcutaneous route with empty micelles, ICHQ or ICHQ/Mic. In addition, animals were treated with miltefosine by the oral route, as a drug control. Half of the animals were euthanized 1 and 15 days after treatment, aiming to evaluate two endpoints after therapy, when parasitological and immunological parameters were investigated. Results showed that the treatment using miltefosine, ICHQ or ICHQ/Mic induced significantly higher anti-parasite IFN-γ, IL-12, GM-CSF, nitrite and IgG2a isotype antibody levels, which were associated with low IL-4 and IL-10 production. In addition, a higher frequency of IFN-γ and TNF-α-producing CD4 + and CD8 + T-cells was found in these animals. The parasite load was evaluated in distinct organs, and results showed that the treatment using miltefosine, ICHQ or ICHQ/Mic induced significant reductions in organic parasitism in the treated and infected mice. A comparison between the treatments suggested that ICHQ/Mic was the most effective in inducing a highly polarized Th1-type response, as well as reducing the parasite load in significant levels in the treated and infected animals. Data obtained 15 days after treatment suggested maintenance of the immunological and parasitological responses. In conclusion, ICHQ/Mic could be considered in future studies for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis.

          Translated abstract

          Un système à micelles polymériques Pluronic ® F127 (ICHQ/Mic) contenant du clioquinol (ICHQ) s’est récemment révélé efficace contre l’infection à Leishmania amazonensis dans un modèle murin. Dans la présente étude, l’ICHQ/Mic a été testé contre l’infection à L. infantum. Les souris BALB/c ( n = 12 par groupe) ont été infectées par des promastigotes stationnaires de L. infantum par injection sous-cutanée et ont reçu 45 jours après l’épreuve une solution saline ou ont été traitées par voie sous-cutanée avec des micelles vides, ICHQ ou ICHQ/Mic. De plus, les animaux ont été traités avec de la miltefosine par voie orale, comme contrôle médicamenteux. La moitié des animaux ont été euthanasiés 1 et 15 jours après le traitement, dans le but de mesurer deux critères d’évaluation après la thérapie, lorsque les paramètres parasitologiques et immunologiques ont été étudiés. Les résultats ont montré que le traitement par miltefosine, ICHQ ou ICHQ/Mic induisait des niveaux d’anticorps anti-parasite IFN-γ, IL-12, GM-CSF, nitrite et IgG2a significativement plus élevés, associés à de faibles productions d’IL-4 et IL-10. De plus, une fréquence plus élevée de cellules T CD4 + et CD8 + produisant de l’IFN-γ and TNF-α a été trouvée chez ces animaux. La charge parasitaire a été évaluée dans des organes distincts et les résultats ont montré que le traitement utilisant la miltefosine, ICHQ ou ICHQ/Mic induisait des réductions significatives du parasitisme des organes chez les souris traitées et infectées. Une comparaison entre les traitements a suggéré qu’ICHQ/Mic était le plus efficace pour induire une réponse de type Th1 polarisée, ainsi que pour réduire la charge parasitaire à des niveaux significatifs chez les animaux traités et infectés. Les données obtenues 15 jours après le traitement suggèrent le maintien des réponses immunologiques et parasitologiques. En conclusion, ICHQ/Mic pourrait être envisagé dans de futures études pour le traitement contre la leishmaniose viscérale.

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          Most cited references 54

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          Miltefosine: a review of its pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of leishmaniasis.

          Miltefosine is an alkylphosphocholine drug with demonstrated activity against various parasite species and cancer cells as well as some pathogenic bacteria and fungi. For 10 years it has been licensed in India for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a fatal neglected parasitic disease. It is the first and still the only oral drug that can be used to treat VL and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The standard 28 day miltefosine monotherapy regimen is well tolerated, except for mild gastrointestinal side effects, although its teratogenic potential severely hampers its general use in the clinic and roll-out in national elimination programmes. The pharmacokinetics of miltefosine are mainly characterized by its long residence time in the body, resulting in extensive drug accumulation during treatment and long elimination half-lives. At the moment, different combination therapy strategies encompassing miltefosine are being tested in multiple controlled clinical trials in various geographical areas of endemicity, both in South Asia and East Africa. We here review the most salient pre-clinical and clinical pharmacological aspects of miltefosine, its mechanism of action against Leishmania parasites and other pathogens, and provide a systematic overview of the efficacy and safety data from all clinical trials of miltefosine, either alone or in combination, in the treatment of VL and CL.
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            Is Open Access

            Pentavalent Antimonials: New Perspectives for Old Drugs

            Pentavalent antimonials, including meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate, have been used for more than half a century in the therapy of the parasitic disease leishmaniasis. Even though antimonials are still the first-line drugs, they exhibit several limitations, including severe side effects, the need for daily parenteral administration and drug resistance. The molecular structure of antimonials, their metabolism and mechanism of action are still being investigated. Some recent studies suggest that pentavalent antimony acts as a prodrug that is converted to active and more toxic trivalent antimony. Other works support the direct involvement of pentavalent antimony. Recent data suggest that the biomolecules, thiols and ribonucleosides, may mediate the actions of these drugs. This review will summarize the progress to date on the chemistry and biochemistry of pentavalent antimony. It will also present the most recent works being done to improve antimonial chemotherapy. These works include the development of simple synthetic methods for pentavalent antimonials, liposome-based formulations for targeting the Leishmania parasites responsible for visceral leishmaniasis and cyclodextrin-based formulations to promote the oral delivery of antimony.
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              Block copolymer micelles as long-circulating drug vehicles


                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                30 April 2020
                : 27
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2020/01 )
                [1 ] Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
                [2 ] Departamento de Produtos Farmacêuticos, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais 31270-901 Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
                [3 ] Laboratório de Imunopatologia, Núcleo de Pesquisas em Ciências Biológicas/NUPEB, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Insituto de Ciências Exatas e Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto Ouro Preto Minas Gerais Brazil
                [4 ] Universidad Católica de Santa María, Urb. San José S/N Umacollo Arequipa Peru
                [5 ] Departamento de Patologia Clínica, COLTEC, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
                Author notes
                parasite200034 10.1051/parasite/2020027
                © G.S.V. Tavares et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2020

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 64, Pages: 12
                Research Article


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