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      Beam Hardening Artifacts: Comparison between Two Cone Beam Computed Tomography Scanners

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          Background and aims

          At present, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has become a substitute for computed tomography (CT) in dental procedures. The metallic materials used in dentistry can produce artifacts due to the beam hard-ening phenomenon. These artifacts decrease the quality of images. In the present study, the number of artifacts as a result of beam hardening in the images of dental implants was compared between two NewTom VG and Planmeca Promax 3D Max CBCT machines.

          Materials and methods

          An implant drilling model was used in the present study. The implants (Dentis) were placed in the canine, premolar and molar areas. Scanning procedures were carried out by two CBCT machines. The corresponding sections (coronal and axial) of the implants were evaluated by two radiologists. The number of artifacts in each image was determined using the scale provided. Mann-Whitney U test was used for two-by-two comparisons at a significance level of P<0.05.


          There were statistically significant differences in beam hardening artifacts in axial and coronal sections between the two x-ray machines (P<0.001), with a higher quality in the images produced by the NewTom VG.


          Given the higher quality of the images produced by the NewTom VG x-ray machine, it is recommended for imaging of patients with extensive restorations, multiple prostheses or previous implant treatments.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Comparative dosimetry of dental CBCT devices and 64-slice CT for oral and maxillofacial radiology.

          This study compares 2 measures of effective dose, E(1990) and E(2007), for 8 dentoalveolar and maxillofacial cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) units and a 64-slice multidetector CT (MDCT) unit. Average tissue-absorbed dose, equivalent dose, and effective dose were calculated using thermoluminescent dosimeter chips in a radiation analog dosimetry phantom. Effective doses were derived using 1990 and the superseding 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations. Large-field of view (FOV) CBCT E(2007) ranged from 68 to 1,073 microSv. Medium-FOV CBCT E(2007) ranged from 69 to 560 microSv, whereas a similar-FOV MDCT produced 860 microSv. The E(2007) calculations were 23% to 224% greater than E(1990). The 2007 recommendations of the ICRP, which include salivary glands, extrathoracic region, and oral mucosa in the calculation of effective dose, result in an upward reassessment of fatal cancer risk from oral and maxillofacial radiographic examinations. Dental CBCT can be recommended as a dose-sparing technique in comparison with alternative medical CT scans for common oral and maxillofacial radiographic imaging tasks.
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            Reduction of CT artifacts caused by metallic implants.

            A technique to reduce metallic implant artifacts on computed tomography scans is presented. The implant boundaries are determined semiautomatically; the missing projection data are replaced by linear interpolation. The complete procedure requires 1-2 minutes per scan. Images with greatly improved quality were obtained in the presence of surgical clips and pelvic implants; success is limited in highly structured regions, such as the facial skull.
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              Iterative deblurring for CT metal artifact reduction.

              Iterative deblurring methods using the expectation maximization (EM) formulation and the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART), respectively, are adapted for metal artifact reduction in medical computed tomography (CT). In experiments with synthetic noise-free and additive noisy projection data of dental phantoms, it is found that both simultaneous iterative algorithms produce superior image quality as compared to filtered backprojection after linearly fitting projection gaps. Furthermore, the EM-type algorithm converges faster than the ART-type algorithm in terms of either the I-divergence or Euclidean distance between ideal and reprojected data in the authors' simulation. Also, for a given iteration number, the EM-type deblurring method produces better image clarity but stronger noise than the ART-type reconstruction. The computational complexity of EM- and ART-based iterative deblurring is essentially the same, dominated by reprojection and backprojection. Relevant practical and theoretical issues are discussed.

                Author and article information

                J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects
                J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects
                Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects
                Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects
                Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
                Spring 2012
                6 June 2012
                : 6
                : 2
                : 49-53
                1Assistant Professor, Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
                2Post-graduate Student, Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
                3Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding Author; dr_masume@ 123456yahoo.com
                © 2012 The Authors; Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Article


                cone beam computed tomography, beam hardening, artifacts


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