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      Staphylococcus argenteus: An emerging subclinical bovine mastitis pathogen in Thailand

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          Abstract

          Background and Aim:

          Staphylococcus argenteus is an emerging species of the Staphylococcus aureus complex. It has usually been misidentified as S. aureus by conventional methods and its characteristics. S. argenteus is potentially emerging in both humans and animals with an increasing global distribution. This study aimed to differentiate and identify S. argenteus from S. aureus collected and isolated from milk samples of subclinical bovine mastitis cases in Maha Sarakham Province, Northeastern Thailand.

          Materials and Methods:

          Forty-two isolates of S. aureus were studied from 132 individual milk samples collected from subclinical bovine mastitis cases of 15 dairy farms in three districts of Maha Sarakham, Thailand. The identification was confirmed by conventional and immune-agglutination methods. Fifteen representative isolates which were suspected as being S. argenteus were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

          Results:

          The result from MALDI-TOF MS confirmed that seven from 15 isolates were S. argenteus and eight isolates were S. aureus.

          Conclusion:

          This study indicated that MALDI-TOF MS used as an identification and classification method could accurately differentiate the novel species, S. argenteus, from the S. aureus complex which is usually misdiagnosed. In addition, the identification of S. argenteus seems to be very limited in technical difficulty despite the fact that it may be the important causative pathogen in bovine mastitis as well as a pathogenic bacterium in food and milk. Therefore, it is essential for both bovine medicine and veterinary public health to emphasize and recognize this bacterial pathogen as an emerging disease of staphylococcal bacteria that there is a need for further study of S. argenteus infections.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Novel staphylococcal species that form part of a Staphylococcus aureus-related complex: the non-pigmented Staphylococcus argenteus sp. nov. and the non-human primate-associated Staphylococcus schweitzeri sp. nov.

          We define two novel species of the genus Staphylococcus that are phenotypically similar to and have near identical 16S rRNA gene sequences to Staphylococcus aureus . However, compared to S. aureus and each other, the two species, Staphylococcus argenteus sp. nov. (type strain MSHR1132T = DSM 28299T = SSI 89.005T) and Staphylococcus schweitzeri sp. nov. (type strain FSA084T = DSM 28300T = SSI 89.004T), demonstrate: 1) at a whole-genome level considerable phylogenetic distance, lack of admixture, average nucleotide identity <95 %, and inferred DNA–DNA hybridization <70 %; 2) different profiles as determined by MALDI-TOF MS; 3) a non-pigmented phenotype for S. argenteus sp. nov.; 4) S. schweitzeri sp. nov. is not detected by standard nucA PCR; 5) distinct peptidoglycan types compared to S. aureus ; 6) a separate ecological niche for S. schweitzeri sp. nov.; and 7) a distinct clinical disease profile for S. argenteus sp. nov. compared to S. aureus .
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            A Very Early-Branching Staphylococcus aureus Lineage Lacking the Carotenoid Pigment Staphyloxanthin

            Here we discuss the evolution of the northern Australian Staphylococcus aureus isolate MSHR1132 genome. MSHR1132 belongs to the divergent clonal complex 75 lineage. The average nucleotide divergence between orthologous genes in MSHR1132 and typical S. aureus is approximately sevenfold greater than the maximum divergence observed in this species to date. MSHR1132 has a small accessory genome, which includes the well-characterized genomic islands, νSAα and νSaβ, suggesting that these elements were acquired well before the expansion of the typical S. aureus population. Other mobile elements show mosaic structure (the prophage φSa3) or evidence of recent acquisition from a typical S. aureus lineage (SCCmec, ICE6013 and plasmid pMSHR1132). There are two differences in gene repertoire compared with typical S. aureus that may be significant clues as to the genetic basis underlying the successful emergence of S. aureus as a pathogen. First, MSHR1132 lacks the genes for production of staphyloxanthin, the carotenoid pigment that confers upon S. aureus its characteristic golden color and protects against oxidative stress. The lack of pigment was demonstrated in 126 of 126 CC75 isolates. Second, a mobile clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) element is inserted into orfX of MSHR1132. Although common in other staphylococcal species, these elements are very rare within S. aureus and may impact accessory genome acquisition. The CRISPR spacer sequences reveal a history of attempted invasion by known S. aureus mobile elements. There is a case for the creation of a new taxon to accommodate this and related isolates.
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              Etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of udder pathogens from cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in Sweden

              Background A nationwide survey on the microbial etiology of cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows was carried out on dairy farms in Sweden. The aim was to investigate the microbial panorama and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance. Moreover, differences between newly infected cows and chronically infected cows were investigated. Methods In total, 583 quarter milk samples were collected from 583 dairy cows at 226 dairy farms from February 2008 to February 2009. The quarter milk samples were bacteriological investigated and scored using the California Mastitis Test. Staphylococci were tested for betalactamase production and presence of resistance was evaluated in all specific udder pathogens. Differences between newly infected cows and chronically infected cows were statistically investigated using logistic regression analysis. Results The most common isolates of 590 bacteriological diagnoses were Staphylococcus (S) aureus (19%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS; 16%) followed by Streptococcus (Str) dysgalactiae (9%), Str. uberis (8%), Escherichia (E.) coli (2.9%), and Streptococcus spp. (1.9%). Samples with no growth or contamination constituted 22% and 18% of the diagnoses, respectively. The distribution of the most commonly isolated bacteria considering only bacteriological positive samples were: S. aureus - 31%, CNS - 27%, Str. dysgalactiae - 15%, Str. uberis - 14%, E. coli - 4.8%, and Streptococcus spp. - 3.1%. There was an increased risk of finding S. aureus, Str. uberis or Str. dysgalactiae in milk samples from chronically infected cows compared to findings in milk samples from newly infected cows. Four percent of the S. aureus isolates and 35% of the CNS isolates were resistant to penicillin G. Overall, resistance to other antimicrobials than penicillin G was uncommon. Conclusions Staphylococcus aureus and CNS were the most frequently isolated pathogens and resistance to antimicrobials was rare.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Vet World
                Vet World
                Veterinary World
                Veterinary World (India )
                0972-8988
                2231-0916
                December 2019
                12 December 2019
                : 12
                : 12
                : 1940-1944
                Affiliations
                One Health Research Unit, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham, Thailand
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Natapol Pumipuntu, e-mail: natapol.p@ 123456msu.ac.th
                Article
                Vetworld-12-1940
                10.14202/vetworld.2019.1940-1944
                6989318
                Copyright: © Pumipuntu

                Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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