Blog
About

27
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Mesenchymal stem cells alleviate airway inflammation and emphysema in COPD through down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 via p38 and ERK MAPK pathways

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been identified as one possible strategy for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our previous studies have demonstrated that MSC administration has therapeutic potential in airway inflammation and emphysema via a paracrine mechanism. We proposed that MSCs reverse the inflammatory process and restore impaired lung function through their interaction with macrophages. In our study, the rats were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS), followed by the administration of MSCs into the lungs for 5 weeks. Here we show that MSC administration alleviated airway inflammation and emphysema through the down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and COX-2-mediated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, possibly through the effect on alveolar macrophages. In vitro co-culture experiments provided evidence that MSCs down-regulated COX-2/PGE2 in macrophages through inhibition of the activation-associated phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and ERK. Our data suggest that MSCs may relieve airway inflammation and emphysema in CS-exposed rat models, through the inhibition of COX-2/PGE2 in alveolar macrophages, mediated in part by the p38 MAPK and ERK pathways. This study provides a compelling mechanism for MSC treatment in COPD, in addition to its paracrine mechanism.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 30

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Macrophages sequentially change their functional phenotype in response to changes in microenvironmental influences.

          Recent studies have described the development of distinct functional subsets of macrophages in association with cancer, autoimmune disease, and chronic infections. Based on the ability of Th1 vs Th2 cytokines to promote opposing activities in macrophages, it has been proposed that macrophages develop into either type 1 inflammatory or type 2 anti-inflammatory subsets. As an alternative to the concept of subset development, we propose that macrophages, in response to changes in their tissue environment, can reversibly and progressively change the pattern of functions that they express. As demonstrated herein, macrophages can reversibly shift their functional phenotype through a multitude of patterns in response to changes in cytokine environment. Macrophages display distinct functional patterns after treatment with IFN-gamma, IL-12, IL-4, or IL-10 and additional functional patterns are displayed depending on whether the cytokine is present alone or with other cytokines and whether the cytokines are added before or concomitantly with the activating stimulus (LPS). Sequential treatment of macrophages with multiple cytokines results in a progression through multiple functional phenotypes. This ability to adapt to changing cytokine environments has significant in vivo relevance, as evidenced by the demonstration that macrophage functional phenotypes established in vivo in aged or tumor-bearing mice can be altered by changing their microenvironment. A concept of functional adaptivity is proposed that has important implications for therapeutic targeting of macrophages in chronic diseases that result in the dominance of particular functional phenotypes of macrophages that play a significant role in disease pathology.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Mesenchymal stem cell-educated macrophages: a novel type of alternatively activated macrophages.

            Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of modulating the immune system through interaction with a wide range of immune cells. This study investigates the hypothesis that interaction of MSCs with macrophages could play a significant role in their antiinflammatory/immune modulatory effects. MSCs were derived from bone marrow and monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy donors. We cultured human monocytes for 7 days without any added cytokines to generate macrophages, and then cocultured them for 3 more days with culture-expanded MSCs. We used cell surface antigen expression and intracellular cytokine expression patterns to study the immunophenotype of macrophages at the end of this coculture period, and phagocytic assays to investigate their functional activity in vitro. Macrophages cocultured with MSCs consistently showed high-level expression of CD206, a marker of alternatively activated macrophages. Furthermore, these macrophages expressed high levels of interleukin (IL)-10 and low levels of IL-12, as determined by intracellular staining, typical of alternatively activated macrophages. However, macrophages cocultured with MSCs also expressed high levels of IL-6 and low levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) compared to controls. Functionally, macrophages cocultured with MSCs showed a higher level of phagocytic activity. We describe a novel type of human macrophage generated in vitro after coculture with MSCs that assumes an immunophenotype defined as IL-10-high, IL-12-low, IL-6-high, and TNF-alpha-low secreting cells. These MSC-educated macrophages may be a unique and novel type of alternatively activated macrophage with a potentially significant role in tissue repair.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Bone marrow stromal cells use TGF-beta to suppress allergic responses in a mouse model of ragweed-induced asthma.

              Bone marrow stromal cells [BMSCs; also known as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)] effectively suppress inflammatory responses in acute graft-versus-host disease in humans and in a number of disease models in mice. Many of the studies concluded that BMSC-driven immunomodulation is mediated by the suppression of proinflammatory Th1 responses while rebalancing the Th1/Th2 ratio toward Th2. In this study, using a ragweed induced mouse asthma model, we studied if BMSCs could be beneficial in an allergic, Th2-dominant environment. When BMSCs were injected i.v. at the time of the antigen challenge, they protected the animals from the majority of asthma-specific pathological changes, including inhibition of eosinophil infiltration and excess mucus production in the lung, decreased levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) in bronchial lavage, and lowered serum levels of Th2 immunoglobulins (IgG1 and IgE). To explore the mechanism of the effect we used BMSCs isolated from a variety of knockout mice, performed in vivo blocking of cytokines and studied the effect of asthmatic serum and bronchoalveolar lavage from ragweed challenged animals on the BMSCs in vitro. Our results suggest that IL-4 and/or IL-13 activate the STAT6 pathway in the BMSCs resulting in an increase of their TGF-beta production, which seems to mediate the beneficial effect, either alone, or together with regulatory T cells, some of which might be recruited by the BMSCs. These data suggest that, in addition to focusing on graft-versus-host disease and autoimmune diseases, allergic conditions--specifically therapy resistant asthma--might also be a likely target of the recently discovered cellular therapy approach using BMSCs.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                04 March 2015
                2015
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine , 1665 KongJiang Road, Shanghai 200092, China
                Author notes
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                srep08733
                10.1038/srep08733
                4348625
                25736434
                Copyright © 2015, Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder in order to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Categories
                Article

                Uncategorized

                Comments

                Comment on this article