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      REAC technology modifies pathological neuroinflammation and motor behaviour in an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model

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          Abstract

          The search for new therapeutic approaches to Alzheimer disease (AD) is a major goal in medicine and society, also due to the impressive economic and social costs of this disease. In this scenario, biotechnologies play an important role. Here, it is demonstrated that the Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer (REAC), an innovative technology platform for neuro- and bio-modulation, used according to the neuro-regenerative protocol (RGN-N), significantly increases astroglial reaction around the amyloid plaques in an AD mouse model, as evaluated by GFAP-immunoreactivity, and reduces microglia-associated neuroinflammation markers, as evaluated by Iba1-immunoreactivity and mRNA expression level of inflammatory cytokines TREM. IL1beta, iNOS and MRC1 were not affected neither by the genotype or by REAC RGN-N treatment. Also observed was an increase in locomotion in treated animals. The study was performed in 24-month-old male Tg2576 mice and age-matching wild-type animals, tested for Y-maze, contextual fear conditioning and locomotion immediately after the end of a specific REAC treatment administered for 15 hours/day for 15 days. These results demonstrated that REAC RGN-N treatment modifies pathological neuroinflammation, and mitigates part of the complex motor behaviour alterations observed in very old Tg2576 mice.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Correlative memory deficits, Abeta elevation, and amyloid plaques in transgenic mice.

          Transgenic mice overexpressing the 695-amino acid isoform of human Alzheimer beta-amyloid (Abeta) precursor protein containing a Lys670 --> Asn, Met671 --> Leu mutation had normal learning and memory in spatial reference and alternation tasks at 3 months of age but showed impairment by 9 to 10 months of age. A fivefold increase in Abeta(1-40) and a 14-fold increase in Abeta(1-42/43) accompanied the appearance of these behavioral deficits. Numerous Abeta plaques that stained with Congo red dye were present in cortical and limbic structures of mice with elevated amounts of Abeta. The correlative appearance of behavioral, biochemical, and pathological abnormalities reminiscent of Alzheimer's disease in these transgenic mice suggests new opportunities for exploring the pathophysiology and neurobiology of this disease.
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            Transcranial pulsed ultrasound stimulates intact brain circuits.

            Electromagnetic-based methods of stimulating brain activity require invasive procedures or have other limitations. Deep-brain stimulation requires surgically implanted electrodes. Transcranial magnetic stimulation does not require surgery, but suffers from low spatial resolution. Optogenetic-based approaches have unrivaled spatial precision, but require genetic manipulation. In search of a potential solution to these limitations, we began investigating the influence of transcranial pulsed ultrasound on neuronal activity in the intact mouse brain. In motor cortex, ultrasound-stimulated neuronal activity was sufficient to evoke motor behaviors. Deeper in subcortical circuits, we used targeted transcranial ultrasound to stimulate neuronal activity and synchronous oscillations in the intact hippocampus. We found that ultrasound triggers TTX-sensitive neuronal activity in the absence of a rise in brain temperature (<0.01 degrees C). Here, we also report that transcranial pulsed ultrasound for intact brain circuit stimulation has a lateral spatial resolution of approximately 2 mm and does not require exogenous factors or surgical invasion. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Synchronous hyperactivity and intercellular calcium waves in astrocytes in Alzheimer mice.

              Although senile plaques focally disrupt neuronal health, the functional response of astrocytes to Alzheimer's disease pathology is unknown. Using multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy in vivo, we quantitatively imaged astrocytic calcium homeostasis in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Resting calcium was globally elevated in the astrocytic network, but was independent of proximity to individual plaques. Time-lapse imaging revealed that calcium transients in astrocytes were more frequent, synchronously coordinated across long distances, and uncoupled from neuronal activity. Furthermore, rare intercellular calcium waves were observed, but only in mice with amyloid-beta plaques, originating near plaques and spreading radially at least 200 micrometers. Thus, although neurotoxicity is observed near amyloid-beta deposits, there exists a more general astrocyte-based network response to focal pathology.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                24 October 2016
                2016
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]IRET Foundation , Ozzano Emilia, Italy
                [2 ]Department of Veterinary Medical Science, University of Bologna , Italy
                [3 ]Health Science and Technologies Interdepartmental Center for Industrial Research (HST-ICIR). University of Bologna , Italy
                [4 ]Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna , Italy
                [5 ]Department of Regenerative Medicine and Neuro Psycho Physical Optimization, Rinaldi Fontani Institute , Florence, Italy
                [6 ]Research Department, Rinaldi Fontani Foundation , Florence, Italy
                Author notes
                Article
                srep35719
                10.1038/srep35719
                5075930
                27775040
                Copyright © 2016, The Author(s)

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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