61
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Filopodia: molecular architecture and cellular functions

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Filopodia are thin, actin-rich plasma-membrane protrusions that function as antennae for cells to probe their environment. Consequently, filopodia have an important role in cell migration, neurite outgrowth and wound healing and serve as precursors for dendritic spines in neurons. The initiation and elongation of filopodia depend on the precisely regulated polymerization, convergence and crosslinking of actin filaments. The increased understanding of the functions of various actin-associated proteins during the initiation and elongation of filopodia has provided new information on the mechanisms of filopodia formation in distinct cell types.

          Related collections

          Most cited references93

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          BAR domains as sensors of membrane curvature: the amphiphysin BAR structure.

          The BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs) domain is the most conserved feature in amphiphysins from yeast to human and is also found in endophilins and nadrins. We solved the structure of the Drosophila amphiphysin BAR domain. It is a crescent-shaped dimer that binds preferentially to highly curved negatively charged membranes. With its N-terminal amphipathic helix and BAR domain (N-BAR), amphiphysin can drive membrane curvature in vitro and in vivo. The structure is similar to that of arfaptin2, which we find also binds and tubulates membranes. From this, we predict that BAR domains are in many protein families, including sorting nexins, centaurins, and oligophrenins. The universal and minimal BAR domain is a dimerization, membrane-binding, and curvature-sensing module.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            The interaction between N-WASP and the Arp2/3 complex links Cdc42-dependent signals to actin assembly.

            Although small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family have been implicated in signaling to the actin cytoskeleton, the exact nature of the linkage has remained obscure. We describe a novel mechanism that links one Rho family member, Cdc42, to actin polymerization. N-WASP, a ubiquitously expressed Cdc42-interacting protein, is required for Cdc42-stimulated actin polymerization in Xenopus egg extracts. The C terminus of N-WASP binds to the Arp2/3 complex and dramatically stimulates its ability to nucleate actin polymerization. Although full-length N-WASP is less effective, its activity can be greatly enhanced by Cdc42 and phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate. Therefore, N-WASP and the Arp2/3 complex comprise a core mechanism that directly connects signal transduction pathways to the stimulation of actin polymerization.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Stress fibers are generated by two distinct actin assembly mechanisms in motile cells

              Stress fibers play a central role in adhesion, motility, and morphogenesis of eukaryotic cells, but the mechanism of how these and other contractile actomyosin structures are generated is not known. By analyzing stress fiber assembly pathways using live cell microscopy, we revealed that these structures are generated by two distinct mechanisms. Dorsal stress fibers, which are connected to the substrate via a focal adhesion at one end, are assembled through formin (mDia1/DRF1)–driven actin polymerization at focal adhesions. In contrast, transverse arcs, which are not directly anchored to substrate, are generated by endwise annealing of myosin bundles and Arp2/3-nucleated actin bundles at the lamella. Remarkably, dorsal stress fibers and transverse arcs can be converted to ventral stress fibers anchored to focal adhesions at both ends. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis revealed that actin filament cross-linking in stress fibers is highly dynamic, suggesting that the rapid association–dissociation kinetics of cross-linkers may be essential for the formation and contractility of stress fibers. Based on these data, we propose a general model for assembly and maintenance of contractile actin structures in cells.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology
                Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1471-0072
                1471-0080
                June 2008
                May 9 2008
                June 2008
                : 9
                : 6
                : 446-454
                Article
                10.1038/nrm2406
                18464790
                b21a8fb9-bcef-41e8-bbc6-62b6718af094
                © 2008

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

                History

                Comments

                Comment on this article