Today, type 2 diabetes is typically treated by lowering sugar in the blood and increasing the sensitivity of muscle cells to insulin. However, novel discoveries could allow future treatments to target the molecular mechanisms in our bodies that generate insulin resistance – effectively preventing the biological chain of events that causes chronic inflammation and disease to initially occur. Professor Jin-ichi Inokuchi heads the Glycopathology Laboratory at Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Japan. Situated within the Institute of Molecular Biomembrane and Glycobiology, the Laboratory focuses on gangliosides and their roles in inflammatory cycles. The scientists are particularly interested in GM3 ganglioside species, as their previous research has indicated that the increased presence of anti-inflammatory GM3 species and decreased presence of pro-inflammatory GM3 species have the power to alter inflammatory cycles in the body, thus contributing to chronic inflammation and associated diseases. Recently, Inokuchi and his colleagues’ research revealed some interesting insights regarding GM3. Namely, they discovered that GM3 plays an important role in an inflammation amplification loop that affects diseases involving chronic inflammation, such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic diseases closely linked with obesity. ‘Collectively, we propose a novel inflammation loop triggered by GM3 molecular species,’ asserts Inokuchi. Inokuchi’s research provides an avenue for tackling these conditions from the inside out. By focusing on the biological processes involved in these lifestyle-related chronic diseases, it may be possible to treat type 2 diabetes and metabolic diseases more efficiently.