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      Flaviviridae Viruses and Oxidative Stress: Implications for Viral Pathogenesis


      1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 3 ,

      Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity


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          Oxidative stress is induced once the balance of generation and neutralization of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is broken in the cell, and it plays crucial roles in a variety of natural and diseased processes. Infections of Flaviviridae viruses trigger oxidative stress, which affects both the cellular metabolism and the life cycle of the viruses. Oxidative stress associated with specific viral proteins, experimental culture systems, and patient infections, as well as its correlations with the viral pathogenesis attracts much research attention. In this review, we primarily focus on hepatitis C virus (HCV), dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) as representatives of Flaviviridae viruses and we summarize the mechanisms involved in the relevance of oxidative stress for virus-associated pathogenesis. We discuss the current understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of oxidative stress induced by Flaviviridae viruses and highlight the relevance of autophagy and DNA damage in the life cycle of viruses. Understanding the crosstalk between viral infection and oxidative stress-induced molecular events may offer new avenues for antiviral therapeutics.

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          Most cited references 172

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          Atg8, a ubiquitin-like protein required for autophagosome formation, mediates membrane tethering and hemifusion.

          Autophagy involves de novo formation of double membrane-bound structures called autophagosomes, which engulf material to be degraded in lytic compartments. Atg8 is a ubiquitin-like protein required for this process in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that can be conjugated to the lipid phosphatidylethanolamine by a ubiquitin-like system. Here, we show using an in vitro system that Atg8 mediates the tethering and hemifusion of membranes, which are evoked by the lipidation of the protein and reversibly modulated by the deconjugation enzyme Atg4. Mutational analyses suggest that membrane tethering and hemifusion observed in vitro represent an authentic function of Atg8 in autophagosome formation in vivo. In addition, electron microscopic analyses indicate that these functions of Atg8 are involved in the expansion of autophagosomal membranes. Our results provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying the unique membrane dynamics of autophagy and also indicate the functional versatility of ubiquitin-like proteins.
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            Endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress in cell fate decision and human disease.

             S Cao,  Randal Kaufman (2014)
            The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a specialized organelle for the folding and trafficking of proteins, which is highly sensitive to changes in intracellular homeostasis and extracellular stimuli. Alterations in the protein-folding environment cause accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER that profoundly affect a variety of cellular signaling processes, including reduction-oxidation (redox) homeostasis, energy production, inflammation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a collection of adaptive signaling pathways that evolved to resolve protein misfolding and restore an efficient protein-folding environment. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been linked to ER stress and the UPR. ROS play a critical role in many cellular processes and can be produced in the cytosol and several organelles, including the ER and mitochondria. Studies suggest that altered redox homeostasis in the ER is sufficient to cause ER stress, which could, in turn, induce the production of ROS in the ER and mitochondria. Although ER stress and oxidative stress coexist in many pathologic states, whether and how these stresses interact is unknown. It is also unclear how changes in the protein-folding environment in the ER cause oxidative stress. In addition, how ROS production and protein misfolding commit the cell to an apoptotic death and contribute to various degenerative diseases is unknown. A greater fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that preserve protein folding homeostasis and redox status will provide new information toward the development of novel therapeutics for many human diseases.
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              Epidemiology of dengue: past, present and future prospects

              Dengue is currently regarded globally as the most important mosquito-borne viral disease. A history of symptoms compatible with dengue can be traced back to the Chin Dynasty of 265–420 AD. The virus and its vectors have now become widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world, particularly over the last half-century. Significant geographic expansion has been coupled with rapid increases in incident cases, epidemics, and hyperendemicity, leading to the more severe forms of dengue. Transmission of dengue is now present in every World Health Organization (WHO) region of the world and more than 125 countries are known to be dengue endemic. The true impact of dengue globally is difficult to ascertain due to factors such as inadequate disease surveillance, misdiagnosis, and low levels of reporting. Currently available data likely grossly underestimates the social, economic, and disease burden. Estimates of the global incidence of dengue infections per year have ranged between 50 million and 200 million; however, recent estimates using cartographic approaches suggest this number is closer to almost 400 million. The expansion of dengue is expected to increase due to factors such as the modern dynamics of climate change, globalization, travel, trade, socioeconomics, settlement and also viral evolution. No vaccine or specific antiviral therapy currently exists to address the growing threat of dengue. Prompt case detection and appropriate clinical management can reduce the mortality from severe dengue. Effective vector control is the mainstay of dengue prevention and control. Surveillance and improved reporting of dengue cases is also essential to gauge the true global situation as indicated in the objectives of the WHO Global Strategy for Dengue Prevention and Control, 2012–2020. More accurate data will inform the prioritization of research, health policy, and financial resources toward reducing this poorly controlled disease. The objective of this paper is to review historical and current epidemiology of dengue worldwide and, additionally, reflect on some potential reasons for expansion of dengue into the future.

                Author and article information

                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
                19 August 2019
                : 2019
                1Institute of Human Virology and Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China
                2Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-sen University), Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510080, China
                3Program of Pathobiology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital and Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Maria Isaguliants

                Copyright © 2019 Zhenzhen Zhang et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funded by: Guangdong Science and Technology Department
                Award ID: 2016A020219003
                Award ID: 2017A050506017
                Funded by: Program for Guangdong Introducing Innovative and Entrepreneurial Teams
                Award ID: 2016ZT06S252
                Funded by: National Basic Research Program of China
                Award ID: 2015CB554301
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 31470263
                Award ID: 31700150
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                Molecular medicine


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