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      Prevalence and genetic characterization of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae among dogs and cats in an animal shelter

      1 , 1 , 2 , 2 , 1

      Journal of Medical Microbiology

      Microbiology Society

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          Detection of Plasmid-Mediated AmpC  -Lactamase Genes in Clinical Isolates by Using Multiplex PCR

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            Molecular epidemiology of Escherichia coli producing CTX-M beta-lactamases: the worldwide emergence of clone ST131 O25:H4.

            Since 2000, Escherichia coli producing CTX-M enzymes have emerged worldwide as important causes of community-onset urinary tract and bloodstream infections owing to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria. Molecular epidemiological studies suggested that the sudden worldwide increase of CTX-M-15-producing E. coli was mainly due to a single clone (ST131) and that foreign travel to high-risk areas, such as the Indian subcontinent, might in part play a role in the spread of this clone across different continents. Empirical antibiotic coverage for these resistant organisms should be considered in community patients presenting with sepsis involving the urinary tract, especially if the patient recently travelled to a high-risk area. If this emerging public health threat is ignored, it is possible that the medical community may be forced, in the near future, to use carbapenems as the first choice for the empirical treatment of serious infections associated with urinary tract infections originating from the community. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
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              Global epidemiology of CTX-M β-lactamases: temporal and geographical shifts in genotype.

              Globally, rates of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are rising. We undertook a literature review, and present the temporal trends in blaCTX-M epidemiology, showing that blaCTX-M-15 and blaCTX-M-14 have displaced other genotypes in many parts of the world. Explanations for these changes can be attributed to: (i) horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of plasmids; (ii) successful Escherichia coli clones; (iii) ESBLs in food animals; (iv) the natural environment; and (v) human migration and access to basic sanitation. We also provide explanations for the changing epidemiology of blaCTX-M-2 and blaCTX-M-27. Modifiable anthropogenic factors, such as poor access to basic sanitary facilities, encourage the spread of blaCTX-M and other antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes, such as blaNDM, blaKPC and mcr-1. We provide further justification for novel preventative and interventional strategies to reduce transmission of these AMR genes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Medical Microbiology
                Microbiology Society
                0022-2615
                1473-5644
                March 01 2019
                March 01 2019
                : 68
                : 3
                : 339-345
                Affiliations
                [1 ] 1 Division of Microbiology, Osaka Institute of Public Health, 8-34, Tojo-cho, Tennoji-ku, Osaka 543-0026, Japan
                [2 ] 2 Osaka Municipal Animal Care and Control Center, 2-5-74, Shibatani, Suminoe-ku, Osaka 559-0021, Japan
                Article
                10.1099/jmm.0.000933
                © 2019

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