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      Effect of saturated fatty acid-rich dietary vegetable oils on lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance in diabetic rats

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          Abstract

          Objective:

          To study the effect of saturated fatty acid (SFA)-rich dietary vegetable oils on the lipid profile, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetic rats.

          Materials and Methods:

          Type 2 diabetes was induced by administering streptozotocin (90 mg/kg, i.p.) in neonatal rats. Twenty-eight-day-old normal (N) and diabetic (D) male Wistar rats were fed for 45 days with a fat-enriched special diet (10%) prepared with coconut oil (CO) – lauric acid-rich SFA, palm oil (PO) – palmitic acid-rich SFA and groundnut oil (GNO) – control (N and D). Lipid profile, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and oral glucose tolerance tests were monitored.

          Results:

          D rats fed with CO (D + CO) exhibited a significant decrease in the total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Besides, they also showed a trend toward improving antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance as compared to the D + GNO group, whereas D + PO treatment aggravated the dyslipidemic condition while causing a significant decrease in the superoxide dismutase levels when compared to N rats fed with GNO (N + GNO). D + PO treatment also impaired the glucose tolerance when compared to N + GNO and D + GNO.

          Conclusion:

          The type of FA in the dietary oil determines its deleterious or beneficial effects. Lauric acid present in CO may protect against diabetes-induced dyslipidemia.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Influence of dietary fat composition on development of insulin resistance in rats. Relationship to muscle triglyceride and omega-3 fatty acids in muscle phospholipid.

          High levels of some but not all dietary fats lead to insulin resistance in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the important determinants underlying this observation. Insulin action was assessed with the euglycemic clamp. Diets high in saturated, monounsaturated (omega-9), or polyunsaturated (omega-6) fatty acids led to severe insulin resistance; glucose infusion rates [GIR] to maintain euglycemia at approximately 1000 pM insulin were 6.2 +/- 0.9, 8.9 +/- 0.9, and 9.7 +/- 0.4 mg.kg-1. min-1, respectively, versus 16.1 +/- 1.0 mg.kg-1.min-1 in chow-fed controls. Substituting 11% of fatty acids in the polyunsaturated fat diet with long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from fish oils normalized insulin action (GIR 15.0 +/- 1.3 mg.kg-1.min-1). Similar replacement with short-chain omega-3 (alpha-linolenic acid, 18:3 omega 3) was ineffective in the polyunsaturated diet (GIR 9.9 +/- 0.5 mg.kg-1.min-1) but completely prevented the insulin resistance induced by a saturated-fat diet (GIR 16.0 +/- 1.5 mg.kg-1.min-1) and did so in both the liver and peripheral tissues. Insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle was inversely correlated with mean muscle triglyceride accumulation (r = 0.95 and 0.86 for soleus and red quadriceps, respectively; both P less than 0.01). Furthermore, percentage of long-chain omega-3 fatty acid in phospholipid measured in red quadriceps correlated highly with insulin action in that muscle (r = 0.97). We conclude that 1) the particular fatty acids and the lipid environment in which they are presented in high-fat diets determine insulin sensitivity in rats; 2) impaired insulin action in skeletal muscle relates to triglyceride accumulation, suggesting intracellular glucose-fatty acid cycle involvement; and 3) long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in phospholipid of skeletal muscle may be important for efficient insulin action.
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            Individual fatty acid effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins: human studies.

            The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of the cholesterolemic effects of individual fatty acids. Although historically there has been great interest in the fatty acid classes, it has been only recently that emphasis has shifted to individual fatty acids. Consequently, and in conjunction with the methodologic challenges inherent in studying individual fatty acids, our database is relatively modest. Nonetheless, it is clear that saturated fatty acids are hypercholesterolemic and that unsaturated fatty acids elicit a hypocholesterolemic effect compared with saturated fatty acids. The question at hand is, What are the relative cholesterolemic effects of the major saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the diet? On the basis of a limited number of well-controlled studies, it appears that myristic acid is the most potent saturated fatty acid. Of the saturated fatty acids, stearic acid is uniquely different in that it appears to be a neutral fatty acid. Monounsaturated fatty acids appear to exert a neutral effect or to be mildly hypocholesterolemic. trans Fatty acids elicit effects that are intermediate to those of the hypercholesterolemic saturated fatty acids and the cis-monounsaturated and cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids. Polyunsaturated fatty acids elicit the most potent hypocholesterolemic effects. Studies are needed to establish the potency with which each fatty acid affects plasma total and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations as well as the mechanisms that account for their markedly different effects. This information will be useful in making dietary recommendations for individual fatty acids that may further reduce risk of chronic diseases in the United States.
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              Antihyperglycaemic effect of Mangifera indica in rat.

              The leaves of Mangifera indica are used as an antidiabetic agent in Nigerian folk medicine. To determine whether or not there is a scientific basis for this use, the effect of the aqueous extract of the leaves on blood glucose level was assessed in normoglycaemic, glucose - induced hyperglycaemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The aqueous extract given orally (1 g/kg) did not alter the blood glucose levels in either normoglycaemic or STZ-induced diabetic rats. In glucose - induced hyperglycaemia, however, antidiabetic activity was seen when the extract and glucose were administered simultaneously and also when the extract was given to the rats 60 min before the glucose. The hypoglycaemic effect of the aqueous extract was compared with that of an oral dose of chlorpropamide (200 mg/kg) under the same conditions. The results of this study indicate that the aqueous extract of the leaves of Mangifera indica possess hypoglycaemic activity. This action may be due to an intestinal reduction of the absorption of glucose. However, other different mechanisms of action cannot be excluded. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Indian J Pharmacol
                IJPharm
                Indian Journal of Pharmacology
                Medknow Publications (India )
                0253-7613
                1998-3751
                June 2010
                : 42
                : 3
                : 142-145
                Affiliations
                Department of Pharmacology, Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Bangalore, India
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Dr. Kshama Devi E-mail: devikshama@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                IJPharm-42-142
                10.4103/0253-7613.66835
                2937313
                20871763
                © Indian Journal of Pharmacology

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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