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      Platinum-modified covalent triazine frameworks hybridized with carbon nanoparticles as methanol-tolerant oxygen reduction electrocatalysts

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          Abstract

          Covalent triazine frameworks, which are crosslinked porous polymers with two-dimensional molecular structures, are promising materials for heterogeneous catalysts. However, the application of the frameworks as electrocatalysts has not been achieved to date because of their poor electrical conductivity. Here we report that platinum-modified covalent triazine frameworks hybridized with conductive carbon nanoparticles are successfully synthesized by introducing carbon nanoparticles during the polymerization process of covalent triazine frameworks. The resulting materials exhibit clear electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reactions in acidic solutions. More interestingly, the platinum-modified covalent triazine frameworks show almost no activity for methanol oxidation, in contrast to commercial carbon-supported platinum. Thus, platinum-modified covalent triazine frameworks hybridized with carbon nanoparticles exhibit selective activity for oxygen reduction reactions even in the presence of high concentrations of methanol, which indicates potential utility as a cathode catalyst in direct methanol fuel cells.

          Abstract

          Covalent triazine frameworks are known catalysts for some catalytic reactions, but show no electrocatalytic activity. Here, the authors synthesize platinum modified covalent triazine frameworks hybridized with carbon nanoparticles, which are electro-active for oxygen reduction reactions.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Porous, crystalline, covalent organic frameworks.

          Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) have been designed and successfully synthesized by condensation reactions of phenyl diboronic acid {C6H4[B(OH)2]2} and hexahydroxytriphenylene [C18H6(OH)6]. Powder x-ray diffraction studies of the highly crystalline products (C3H2BO)6.(C9H12)1 (COF-1) and C9H4BO2 (COF-5) revealed expanded porous graphitic layers that are either staggered (COF-1, P6(3)/mmc) or eclipsed (COF-5, P6/mmm). Their crystal structures are entirely held by strong bonds between B, C, and O atoms to form rigid porous architectures with pore sizes ranging from 7 to 27 angstroms. COF-1 and COF-5 exhibit high thermal stability (to temperatures up to 500 degrees to 600 degrees C), permanent porosity, and high surface areas (711 and 1590 square meters per gram, respectively).
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            Covalent organic frameworks.

            Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a class of crystalline porous polymers that allow the atomically precise integration of organic units to create predesigned skeletons and nanopores. They have recently emerged as a new molecular platform for designing promising organic materials for gas storage, catalysis, and optoelectronic applications. The reversibility of dynamic covalent reactions, diversity of building blocks, and geometry retention are three key factors involved in the reticular design and synthesis of COFs. This tutorial review describes the basic design concepts, the recent synthetic advancements and structural studies, and the frontiers of functional exploration.
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              Single-atom catalysis of CO oxidation using Pt1/FeOx.

              Platinum-based heterogeneous catalysts are critical to many important commercial chemical processes, but their efficiency is extremely low on a per metal atom basis, because only the surface active-site atoms are used. Catalysts with single-atom dispersions are thus highly desirable to maximize atom efficiency, but making them is challenging. Here we report the synthesis of a single-atom catalyst that consists of only isolated single Pt atoms anchored to the surfaces of iron oxide nanocrystallites. This single-atom catalyst has extremely high atom efficiency and shows excellent stability and high activity for both CO oxidation and preferential oxidation of CO in H2. Density functional theory calculations show that the high catalytic activity correlates with the partially vacant 5d orbitals of the positively charged, high-valent Pt atoms, which help to reduce both the CO adsorption energy and the activation barriers for CO oxidation.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Applied Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku , Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
                [2 ]Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 1-5-3 Komaba, Meguro-ku , Tokyo 153-8904, Japan
                [3 ]Core Technologies Development Center, Eco Solutions Company, Panasonic Corporation, 1048 Kadoma , Kadoma-city, Osaka 571-8686, Japan
                Author notes
                Journal
                Nat Commun
                Nat Commun
                Nature Communications
                Nature Pub. Group
                2041-1723
                22 September 2014
                : 5
                25242214 4199112 ncomms6040 10.1038/ncomms6040
                Copyright © 2014, Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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