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      Solasodine, Isolated from Solanum sisymbriifolium Fruits, Has a Potent Anti-Tumor Activity Against Pancreatic Cancer

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          Increasing evidences have revealed that solasodine, isolated from Solanum sisymbriifolium fruits, has multiple functions such as anti-oxidant, anti-tumor and anti-infection. However, its role in pancreatic cancer has not been well studied.


          To explore the role of solasodine in pancreatic cancer, human pancreatic cell lines including SW1990 and PANC1 were treated with different concentrations of solasodine for 48 h, and cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay, cell invasion and migration were evaluated by Transwell assay. The effect of solasodine on the apoptosis of SW1990 and PANC1 cells was detected by flow cytometry. To further explore the antitumor effect of solasodine in vivo, an SW1990 tumor-bearing mouse model was constructed. The effects of solasodine on cytokines in the serum of SW1990 tumor-bearing mice were also evaluated by ELISA assay.


          Specifically, in vitro, solasodine could significantly inhibit the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cell lines SW1990 and PANC1 cells. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that solasodine could induce apoptosis of SW1990 and PANC1 cells. Western blot assay indicated that solasodine could significantly inhibit the activation of Cox-2/Akt/GSK3β signal pathway. Meanwhile, the release of Cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm which can raise the caspases cascade (C-caspase 3 and C-caspase 9) was significantly enhanced by solasodine. In vivo, the results showed that solasodine had potent anti-tumor activities with a lower cytotoxicity. In addition, the serum TNF-α, IL-2 and IFN-γ levels in SW1990 tumor-bearing mice after the treatment of solasodine was significantly increased.


          Taken together, our results suggested that the solasodine could prevent the progression of pancreatic cancer by inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis, as well as stimulating immunity, suggesting that solasodine might be a potential therapeutic strategy for pancreatic cancer.

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          Most cited references 47

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          The process of programmed cell death, or apoptosis, is generally characterized by distinct morphological characteristics and energy-dependent biochemical mechanisms. Apoptosis is considered a vital component of various processes including normal cell turnover, proper development and functioning of the immune system, hormone-dependent atrophy, embryonic development and chemical-induced cell death. Inappropriate apoptosis (either too little or too much) is a factor in many human conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, ischemic damage, autoimmune disorders and many types of cancer. The ability to modulate the life or death of a cell is recognized for its immense therapeutic potential. Therefore, research continues to focus on the elucidation and analysis of the cell cycle machinery and signaling pathways that control cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. To that end, the field of apoptosis research has been moving forward at an alarmingly rapid rate. Although many of the key apoptotic proteins have been identified, the molecular mechanisms of action or inaction of these proteins remain to be elucidated. The goal of this review is to provide a general overview of current knowledge on the process of apoptosis including morphology, biochemistry, the role of apoptosis in health and disease, detection methods, as well as a discussion of potential alternative forms of apoptosis.
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            Data are lacking on the efficacy and safety of a combination chemotherapy regimen consisting of oxaliplatin, irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin (FOLFIRINOX) as compared with gemcitabine as first-line therapy in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. We randomly assigned 342 patients with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0 or 1 (on a scale of 0 to 5, with higher scores indicating a greater severity of illness) to receive FOLFIRINOX (oxaliplatin, 85 mg per square meter of body-surface area; irinotecan, 180 mg per square meter; leucovorin, 400 mg per square meter; and fluorouracil, 400 mg per square meter given as a bolus followed by 2400 mg per square meter given as a 46-hour continuous infusion, every 2 weeks) or gemcitabine at a dose of 1000 mg per square meter weekly for 7 of 8 weeks and then weekly for 3 of 4 weeks. Six months of chemotherapy were recommended in both groups in patients who had a response. The primary end point was overall survival. The median overall survival was 11.1 months in the FOLFIRINOX group as compared with 6.8 months in the gemcitabine group (hazard ratio for death, 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45 to 0.73; P<0.001). Median progression-free survival was 6.4 months in the FOLFIRINOX group and 3.3 months in the gemcitabine group (hazard ratio for disease progression, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.59; P<0.001). The objective response rate was 31.6% in the FOLFIRINOX group versus 9.4% in the gemcitabine group (P<0.001). More adverse events were noted in the FOLFIRINOX group; 5.4% of patients in this group had febrile neutropenia. At 6 months, 31% of the patients in the FOLFIRINOX group had a definitive degradation of the quality of life versus 66% in the gemcitabine group (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.70; P<0.001). As compared with gemcitabine, FOLFIRINOX was associated with a survival advantage and had increased toxicity. FOLFIRINOX is an option for the treatment of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer and good performance status. (Funded by the French government and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00112658.).
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              Cytochrome C-mediated apoptosis.

              Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is involved in development, elimination of damaged cells, and maintenance of cell homeostasis. Deregulation of apoptosis may cause diseases, such as cancers, immune diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. Apoptosis is executed by a subfamily of cysteine proteases known as caspases. In mammalian cells, a major caspase activation pathway is the cytochrome c-initiated pathway. In this pathway, a variety of apoptotic stimuli cause cytochrome c release from mitochondria, which in turn induces a series of biochemical reactions that result in caspase activation and subsequent cell death. In this review, we focus on the recent progress in understanding the biochemical mechanisms and regulation of the pathway, the roles of the pathway in physiology and disease, and their potential therapeutic values.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                13 April 2021
                : 15
                : 1509-1519
                [1 ]Medical Laboratory, Shidong Hospital Affiliated to University of Shanghai for Science and Technology , Shanghai, 200438, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Wenfang Zhuang; Yuan Wang Medical Laboratory, Shidong Hospital Affiliated to University of Shanghai for Science and Technology , No. 999 Shiguang Road, Yangpu District, Shanghai, 200438, People’s Republic of China Email wenfangzhuangmed@163.com; tv0801@163.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2021 Fan et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 2, References: 47, Pages: 11
                Funded by: Key disciplines of Yangpu District, Shanghai;
                Funded by: Shanghai municipal commission of health and family planning;
                This work was supported by Key disciplines of Yangpu District, Shanghai (Grant No. YP19ZB03) and Shanghai municipal commission of health and family planning (Grant No. 201740228).
                Original Research


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