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Efectos de la intervención nutricional sobre las variables antropométricas, la ingesta y las concentraciones de lípidos y lipoproteínas del plasma en niños con dislipidemia

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      Abstract

      El propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la intervención nutricional individualizada sobre: 1) Variables Antropométricas; 2) Cambios en las variables de la ingesta lipídica; y 3) Cambios de las concentraciones de lípidos del plasma. Se analizó la relación entre las diferencias inicial menos final de las concentraciones de lípidos del plasma y la calidad de la ingesta. Se procedió a intervenir nutricionalmente por un período de cuatro meses, a un grupo de veintisiete niños, con dislipidemia. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la intervención nutricional individualizada favorece la pérdida de peso y la reducción de los indicadores de músculo y grasa en niños con sobrepeso y con reservas calóricas y proteicas altas o muy altas, sin afectar su ganancia en talla. En el caso de niños con peso adecuado y reservas calórico-proteicas normales se favoreció el mantenimiento de esos parámetros, sin afectar la ganancia en talla. La intervención nutricional también tuvo un efecto beneficioso sobre todas las variables que conforman la ingesta. La reducción en la ingesta de grasas saturadas y colesterol, en niños con dislipidemia, se traduce en un descenso estadísticamente significativo en las concentraciones plasmáticas de colesterol total y las lipoproteínas de Baja Densidad LDL-C (en el orden del 11 y el 17% respectivamente). Los resultados de este estudio ponen en evidencia la importancia de la intervención nutricional en niños con dislipidemia, ya que parece una vía eficiente para la prevención, control y tratamiento de los desórdenes metabólicos, antes de optar por tratamientos con drogas

      Translated abstract

      Effects of nutritional intervention on anthropometric variables, intake, serum lipids concentrations and plasma lipids and lipoproteins in dyslipidemic children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the individualized nutritional intervention on: 1) Anthropometric variables; 2) Changes in lipid intake variables; 3) Changes in plasma lipids concentrations. The relationship between the initial and final difference in plasma lipid concentrations and the quality of the intake was analyzed. The nutritional intervention was provided in a four- month period to a 27 dyslipidemic children. The results indicate that individualized nutritional intervention favors weight loss and reduction of fat indicators in overweight children with adequate proteic and caloric reserves, not affecting the normal growing process. Those children with normal weight and caloric reserves maintained them without affecting growth. The nutritional intervention also had a beneficial effect on those variables related to dietary intake. The reduction of the saturated fat and cholesterol intake in dyslipidemic children resulted in a significant decrease in total plasma concentration of cholesterol and LDL-C lipoproteins (11% and 17%, respectively). These results show the importance of nutritional intervention in dyslipidemic children since it seems an efficient way for prevention, control and treatment of lipid metabolic disorders over lipemic reducing drugs

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      Most cited references 84

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      Dietary fat intake does affect obesity!

      There is a difference of opinion about whether the percentage of dietary fat plays an important role in the rising prevalence of overweight and in its treatment once it has developed. We believe that ample research from animal and clinical studies, from controlled trials, and from epidemiologic and ecologic analyses provides strong evidence that dietary fat plays a role in the development and treatment of obesity. A reduction in fat intake reduces the gap between total energy intake and total energy expenditure and thus is an effective strategy for reducing the present epidemic of obesity worldwide. A review of the results from 28 clinical trials that studied the effects of a reduction in the amount of energy from fat in the diet showed that a reduction of 10% in the proportion of energy from fat was associated with a reduction in weight of 16 g/d. We thus conclude that dietary fat plays a role in the development of obesity. To reduce the prevalence of obesity, there must be an increase in energy expenditure, a reduction in total energy intake, or both. This goal can be facilitated by reducing the amount of fat in the diet.
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        Factors affecting the relationship between childhood and adult cholesterol levels: the Muscatine Study.

        A group of 2,446 subjects initially examined at 8 to 18 years of age were reexamined as young adults of 20 to 25 or 26 to 30 years of age. Measurements of cholesterol, height, weight, and triceps skinfold thickness were obtained during childhood. Lipids, lipoprotein fractions, and family history, as well as medication, alcohol, and tobacco use, were determined during the adult examination. Elevated levels of cholesterol during childhood were associated with elevation in adult life. Obesity acquired in adolescence and the young adult years, oral contraceptive use, and cigarette smoking had deleterious effects on adult cholesterol levels and lipoprotein fractions.
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          Individual fatty acid effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins: human studies.

          The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of the cholesterolemic effects of individual fatty acids. Although historically there has been great interest in the fatty acid classes, it has been only recently that emphasis has shifted to individual fatty acids. Consequently, and in conjunction with the methodologic challenges inherent in studying individual fatty acids, our database is relatively modest. Nonetheless, it is clear that saturated fatty acids are hypercholesterolemic and that unsaturated fatty acids elicit a hypocholesterolemic effect compared with saturated fatty acids. The question at hand is, What are the relative cholesterolemic effects of the major saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the diet? On the basis of a limited number of well-controlled studies, it appears that myristic acid is the most potent saturated fatty acid. Of the saturated fatty acids, stearic acid is uniquely different in that it appears to be a neutral fatty acid. Monounsaturated fatty acids appear to exert a neutral effect or to be mildly hypocholesterolemic. trans Fatty acids elicit effects that are intermediate to those of the hypercholesterolemic saturated fatty acids and the cis-monounsaturated and cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids. Polyunsaturated fatty acids elicit the most potent hypocholesterolemic effects. Studies are needed to establish the potency with which each fatty acid affects plasma total and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations as well as the mechanisms that account for their markedly different effects. This information will be useful in making dietary recommendations for individual fatty acids that may further reduce risk of chronic diseases in the United States.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Universidad Central de Venezuela Venezuela
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            alan
            Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición
            ALAN
            Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición (Caracas )
            0004-0622
            June 2001
            : 51
            : 2
            : 132-144
            S0004-06222001000200004

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            Product
            Product Information: SciELO Venezuela
            Categories
            NUTRITION & DIETETICS

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