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      Undergraduate students’ norms for the Chinese version of the symptom check-List-90-R (SCL-90-R)

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          Despite widespread application of the Symptom Check-List-90-R (SCL-90-R) for Chinese undergraduate students, there are no appropriate norms for them. The aim of this study is to provide norms for the Chinese version of the tool for undergraduate students using a large and representative sample .


          Four thousand eight hundred sixty students completed the scale of SCL-90. The mean scores obtained in the present study were compared with mean scores from previous normative samples.


          The mean scores for nine subscales of the SCL-90-R ranged from (1.36 ± 0.46) ~ (1.77 ± 0.63) and the mean (standard deviation) Global Severity Index ( GSI) was 1.50 (0.49). Relative to previous normative studies, the findings suggested that Chinese undergraduate students’ self-reported mental health symptoms decreased in interpersonal sensitivity, depression, hostility, and paranoid ideation subscales.


          It is necessary to revise the norms of the Chinese version of the SCL-90-R for undergraduate students.

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          The Symptom Check-List-90-R (SCL-90-R): a German validation study.

          The Symptom Check-List-90-R (SCL-90-R) is a widely used psychological status symptom inventory. The properties of the German SCL-90-R version were studied in two clinical samples: psychosomatic outpatients and primary care patients. The data were compared with a German community sample. The internal consistency, measured by Cronbach's alpha coefficients, was found to be high, for the global scale and all original subscales. Mokken scale analysis indicated hierarchical structure for most of the subscales. Concurrent validity, evaluated by studying the relationship between the SCL-90-R subscales and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-C) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was also high. On the basis of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, it was found that the SCL-90-R was able to differentiate between subjects known to have a given psychological disorder and those who do not. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis failed to support the original nine factor model and two subsequent factor models. The strong interdependence of the original subscales and the strong first unrotated factor of the exploratory factor analyses raised concern regarding the multi-dimensionality of the SCL-90-R subscales. We concluded that the SCL-90-R is a useful tool for measuring psychological status, measuring change in outcome studies, or screening for mental disorders.
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            Assessing clinical significance: proposed extensions to method.

            Jacobson, Follette, and Revenstorf's (1984) proposal for assessing clinical significance provides a needed convention for psychotherapy outcome research. Several limitations that exists in this method (Jacobson & Revenstorf, 1988) are addressed in this paper and extensions are proposed. Specifically, limitations regarding the operationalization of the underlying social validation methodology in the derivation of normative samples and the resultant standards they set are discussed. Extensions and guidelines are proposed for specifying normative samples, determining the distinctness of these samples, and expanding procedures to accommodate multiple samples. This paper initially assumes a psychometric perspective and presents extensions, based on the Symptom Checklist 90-R. Then it shifts to a clinician perspective and applies reliable change estimates and cutoff scores to actual outcome data by analyzing the progress of four patients during and after therapy. The overall merit and utility of extensions to clinical significance are then discussed.
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              The symptom check-list, SCL-90-R: its use and characteristics in chronic pain patients.

              The SCL-90-R is a widely-used questionnaire for self-report of psychological distress and multiple aspects of psychopathology, as part of the evaluation of chronic pain patients and other non-psychiatric populations. The aim of this study is the presentation of clinical results of this multidimensional questionnaire in a convenience sample of 3540 chronic pain patients treated in a multidisciplinary pain centre. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), single scale factor analyses and Cronbach's alphas are used to assess the internal structure and correlation to other instruments (CES-D, STAI, MPSS) to assess construct validity. It is shown that the 9 dimensions postulated by Derogatis et al. (1977 a) cannot at all be distinguished in chronic pain patients. The use of single subscores of the SCL-90-R, often employed as a screening instrument for specific diagnoses, such as depression, is at least questionable in chronic pain patients. Copyright 2000 European Federation of Chapters of the International Association for the Study of Pain.

                Author and article information

                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BioMed Central (London )
                21 October 2020
                21 October 2020
                : 20
                [1 ]GRID grid.410560.6, ISNI 0000 0004 1760 3078, Department of Psychology Research Center for Quality of Life and Applied Psychology, , Guangdong Medical University, ; Dongguan, 523808 China
                [2 ]GRID grid.410560.6, ISNI 0000 0004 1760 3078, School of Humanities and Management, Research Center for Quality of Life and Applied Psychology, , Guangdong Medical University, ; Dongguan, 523808 China
                [3 ]GRID grid.24516.34, ISNI 0000000123704535, Institute of Psychosomatic Medicine, The East Translational Medicine Platform, , Tongji University, ; Shanghai, 200092 China
                [4 ]GRID grid.254567.7, ISNI 0000 0000 9075 106X, Department of Psychology, , University of South Carolina, ; Columbia, SC 29212 USA
                [5 ]GRID grid.285847.4, ISNI 0000 0000 9588 0960, School of Public Health, , Kunming Medical University, ; Kunming, 650021 China
                [6 ]GRID grid.285847.4, ISNI 0000 0000 9588 0960, School of International Education, , Kunming Medical University, ; Kunming, 650021 China
                © The Author(s) 2020

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                Funded by: National Key Technologies Research and Development Program of China
                Award ID: 2009BAI77B05
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province (CN)
                Award ID: 2018GXJK059
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                Research Article
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                © The Author(s) 2020

                Public health

                mental health, scl-90-r, norms, undergraduate students, chinese version


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