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      Four new species of the planthopper genus Metanigrus Tsaur, Yang & Wilson from China (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Meenoplidae)

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          Abstract

          Four new species of the genus Metanigrus Tsaur, Yang & Wilson, 1986, M. chromus Lv & Chen, sp. nov., M. guttatus Lv & Chen, sp. nov., M. gremius Lv & Chen, sp. nov., and M. spinatus Lv, Chen & Bourgoin, sp. nov. from China (Hubei, Guizhou and Yunnan), are described and illustrated, giving the genus six species in total. A key to all known species of Metanigrus is provided, as well as a map of their geographic distributions.

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          Most cited references 13

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          An update of Wallace's zoogeographic regions of the world.

          Modern attempts to produce biogeographic maps focus on the distribution of species, and the maps are typically drawn without phylogenetic considerations. Here, we generate a global map of zoogeographic regions by combining data on the distributions and phylogenetic relationships of 21,037 species of amphibians, birds, and mammals. We identify 20 distinct zoogeographic regions, which are grouped into 11 larger realms. We document the lack of support for several regions previously defined based on distributional data and show that spatial turnover in the phylogenetic composition of vertebrate assemblages is higher in the Southern than in the Northern Hemisphere. We further show that the integration of phylogenetic information provides valuable insight on historical relationships among regions, permitting the identification of evolutionarily unique regions of the world.
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            From micropterism to hyperpterism: recognition strategy and standardized homology-driven terminology of the forewing venation patterns in planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha)

            Following recent advances in the morphological interpretations of the tegmen basal cell margins in the Paraneoptera, a standardized and homology-driven groundplan terminology for tegmina types, structures and vein patterns in Hemiptera Fulgoromorpha, including fossils, is proposed. Each term is listed with a morphological definition, compared and linked to the main systems of planthopper forewing description that have been reviewed. The importance of a standardized and homology-driven terminology is stressed to enhance the quality of data in taxonomic descriptions and to strengthen phylogenetic morphological analysis results. When the interpretation of the origin of vein branches is render difficult, a three-step strategy for pattern recognition of the vein is proposed based on two principles: (1) vein forks are more informative than topology of the vein branches: a search for homologous areas, the nodal cells in particular, must first guide the recognition rather the number of branches of a vein, and (2) minimum of ad hoc evolutionary events should be invoked in the understanding of a modified vein pattern. Examples of some conflicting interpretations of venation patterns in planthoppers are discussed within different families for both extant and extinct taxa. For the first time, the concept of brachypterism is defined in a non-relative way independently from other structures, and the new one of hyperpterism is proposed; a reporting system is proposed for each of them.
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              The Meenoplidae (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha) of New Caledonia, with a revision of the genus Eponisia Matsumura, 1914, and new morphological data on forewing venation and wax plate areas.

               T Bourgoin,  Bourgoin (1997)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2021
                16 March 2021
                : 1024
                : 197-213
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550025, China
                [2 ] The Provincial Special Key Laboratory for Development and Utilization of Insect Resources of Guizhou, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou, 550025, China
                [3 ] Institut Systématique, Evolution, Biodiversité, UMR 7205 MNHN-CNRS-Sorbonne Université-EPHE-Univ. Antilles, Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, CP 50, 57 Rue Cuvier, F-75005, Paris, France
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Xiang-Sheng Chen ( chenxs3218@ 123456163.com )

                Academic editor: M. Wilson

                Article
                62226
                10.3897/zookeys.1024.62226
                7987706
                33786007
                Sha-Sha Lv, Thierry Bourgoin, Lin Yang, Xiang-Sheng Chen

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Animalia
                Arthropoda
                Auchenorrhyncha
                Fulgoroidea
                Hemiptera
                Hexapoda
                Insecta
                Invertebrata
                Meenoplidae
                Agriculture and Forestry
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                Biogeography
                Asia
                Central Asia
                China

                Animal science & Zoology

                taxonomy, morphology, meenoplinae, oriental region, fulgoroidea

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