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      The Effects of Mixed Fusarium Mycotoxins at EU-Permitted Feed Levels on Weaned Piglets’ Tissue Lipids

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          Abstract

          At exactly the individual permitted EU-tolerance dietary limits, fumonisins (FB: 5 mg/kg diet) and mixed fusariotoxins (DZ: 0.9 mg deoxynivalenol + 0.1 mg zearalenone/kg diet, and FDZ: 5 mg fumonisins + 0.9 mg deoxynivalenol + 0.1 mg zearalenone/kg diet) were administered to piglets ( n = 6/group) for three weeks. Bodyweights of intoxicated piglets increased, while feed conversion ratios decreased. In FDZ, both the absolute and relative weight of the liver decreased. In the renal-cellular membrane, the most pronounced alterations were in FDZ treatment, followed by individual FB exposure. In both treatments, high proportions of C20:0 and C22:0 with low fatty acid (FA) unsaturation were found. In hepatocyte phospholipids, FDZ toxins exerted antagonistic interactions, and FB had the strongest increasing effect on FA monounsaturation. Among all investigated organs, the spleen lipids were the least responsive, in which FDZ expressed synergistic reactions on C20:0 (↑ FDZ vs. FB) and C22:0 (↓ FDZ vs. DZ). The antioxidant defense of the kidney was depleted (↓ glutathione concentration by FB-exposure). Blood plasma indicated renal injury (profound increase of urea and creatinine in FB vs. DZ and FDZ). FB strongly increased total-cholesterol and low density lipoprotein concentrations, whereas FDZ synergistically increased gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline-phosphatase, calcium and phosphorus levels. Summarized, individual and combined multiple fusariotoxins modified the membrane lipid profile and antioxidant defense of splanchnic organs, and serum biochemicals, without retarding growth in piglets.

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          PROTEIN MEASUREMENT WITH THE FOLIN PHENOL REAGENT

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            A SIMPLE METHOD FOR THE ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF TOTAL LIPIDES FROM ANIMAL TISSUES

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              Review on the toxicity, occurrence, metabolism, detoxification, regulations and intake of zearalenone: an oestrogenic mycotoxin.

              Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by fungi belonging to the genus Fusarium in foods and feeds. It is frequently implicated in reproductive disorders of farm animals and occasionally in hyperoestrogenic syndromes in humans. There is evidence that ZEA and its metabolites possess oestrogenic activity in pigs, cattle and sheep. However, ZEA is of a relatively low acute toxicity after oral or interperitoneal administration in mice, rat and pig. The biotransformation for ZEA in animals involves the formation of two metabolites alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZEA) and beta-zearalenol (beta-ZEA) which are subsequently conjugated with glucuronic acid. Moreover, ZEA has also been shown to be hepatotoxic, haematotoxic, immunotoxic and genotoxic. The exact mechanism of ZEA toxicity is not completely established. This paper gives an overview about the acute, subacute and chronic toxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, carcinogenicity, genotoxicity and immunotoxicity of ZEA and its metabolites. ZEA is commonly found on several foods and feeds in the temperate regions of Europe, Africa, Asia, America and Oceania. Recent data about the worldwide contamination of foods and feeds by ZEA are considered in this review. Due to economic losses engendered by ZEA and its impact on human and animal health, several strategies for detoxifying contaminated foods and feeds have been described in the literature including physical, chemical and biological process. Dietary intakes of ZEA were reported from few countries from the world. The mean dietary intakes for ZEA have been estimated at 20 ng/kgb.w./day for Canada, Denmark and Norway and at 30 ng/kgb.w./day for the USA. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) established a provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) for ZEA of 0.5 microg/kg of body weight.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Toxins (Basel)
                Toxins (Basel)
                toxins
                Toxins
                MDPI
                2072-6651
                27 June 2021
                July 2021
                : 13
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Physiology and Animal Health, Institute of Physiology and Nutrition, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kaposvár Campus, Guba S. u. 40., 7400 Kaposvár, Hungary; kovacs.melinda@ 123456uni-mate.hu (M.K.); szan1125@ 123456freemail.hu (A.S.)
                [2 ]Department of Feed Toxicology, Institute of Physiology and Nutrition, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Gödöllő Campus, Páter K. u. 1., 2053 Gödöllő, Hungary; mezes.miklos@ 123456uni-mate.hu (M.M.); balogh.krisztian.milan@ 123456uni-mate.hu (K.B.)
                [3 ]MTA-KE-SZIE Mycotoxins in the Food Chain Research Group, Department of Physiology and Animal Health, Institute of Physiology and Nutrition, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kaposvár Campus, Guba S. u. 40., 7400 Kaposvár, Hungary
                Author notes
                Article
                toxins-13-00444
                10.3390/toxins13070444
                8309798
                34199083
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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