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      Hesperetin Nanocrystals Improve Mitochondrial Function in a Cell Model of Early Alzheimer Disease

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          Abstract

          Mitochondrial dysfunction represents a hallmark of both brain aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer disease (AD). AD-related mitochondrial dysfunction is characterized by an impaired electron transport chain (ETC), subsequent decreased adenosine triphoshpate (ATP) levels, and elevated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The bioactive citrus flavanone hesperetin (Hst) is known to modulate inflammatory response, to function as an antioxidant, and to provide neuroprotective properties. The efficacy in improving mitochondrial dysfunction of Hst nanocrystals (HstN) with increased bioavailability has not yet been investigated. Human SH-SY5Y cells harboring neuronal amyloid precursor protein (APP 695) acted as a model for the initial phase of AD. MOCK-transfected cells served as controls. The energetic metabolite ATP was determined using a luciferase-catalyzed bioluminescence assay. The activity of mitochondrial respiration chain complexes was assessed by high-resolution respirometry using a Clarke electrode. Expression levels of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex genes were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The levels of amyloid β-protein (Aβ 1-40) were measured using homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF). ROS levels, peroxidase activity, and cytochrome c activity were determined using a fluorescence assay. Compared to pure Hst dissolved in ethanol (HstP), SH-SY5Y-APP 695 cells incubated with HstN resulted in significantly reduced mitochondrial dysfunction: ATP levels and respiratory chain complex activity significantly increased. Gene expression levels of RCC I, IV, and V were significantly upregulated. In comparison, the effects of HstN on SY5Y-MOCK control cells were relatively small. Pure Hst dissolved in ethanol (HstP) had almost no effect on both cell lines. Neither HstN nor HstP led to significant changes in Aβ 1-40 levels. HstN and HstP were both shown to lower peroxidase activity significantly. Furthermore, HstN significantly reduced cytochrome c activity, whereas HstP had a significant effect on reducing ROS in SH-SY5Y-APP 695 cells. Thus, it seems that the mechanisms involved may not be linked to altered Aβ production. Nanoflavonoids such as HstN have the potential to prevent mitochondria against dysfunction. Compared to its pure form, HstN showed a greater effect in combatting mitochondrial dysfunction. Further studies should evaluate whether HstN protects against age-related mitochondrial dysfunction and thus may contribute to late-onset AD.

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          The MIQE guidelines: minimum information for publication of quantitative real-time PCR experiments.

          Currently, a lack of consensus exists on how best to perform and interpret quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) experiments. The problem is exacerbated by a lack of sufficient experimental detail in many publications, which impedes a reader's ability to evaluate critically the quality of the results presented or to repeat the experiments. The Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines target the reliability of results to help ensure the integrity of the scientific literature, promote consistency between laboratories, and increase experimental transparency. MIQE is a set of guidelines that describe the minimum information necessary for evaluating qPCR experiments. Included is a checklist to accompany the initial submission of a manuscript to the publisher. By providing all relevant experimental conditions and assay characteristics, reviewers can assess the validity of the protocols used. Full disclosure of all reagents, sequences, and analysis methods is necessary to enable other investigators to reproduce results. MIQE details should be published either in abbreviated form or as an online supplement. Following these guidelines will encourage better experimental practice, allowing more reliable and unequivocal interpretation of qPCR results.
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            How mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species

            The production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) by mammalian mitochondria is important because it underlies oxidative damage in many pathologies and contributes to retrograde redox signalling from the organelle to the cytosol and nucleus. Superoxide (O2 •−) is the proximal mitochondrial ROS, and in the present review I outline the principles that govern O2 •− production within the matrix of mammalian mitochondria. The flux of O2 •− is related to the concentration of potential electron donors, the local concentration of O2 and the second-order rate constants for the reactions between them. Two modes of operation by isolated mitochondria result in significant O2 •− production, predominantly from complex I: (i) when the mitochondria are not making ATP and consequently have a high Δp (protonmotive force) and a reduced CoQ (coenzyme Q) pool; and (ii) when there is a high NADH/NAD+ ratio in the mitochondrial matrix. For mitochondria that are actively making ATP, and consequently have a lower Δp and NADH/NAD+ ratio, the extent of O2 •− production is far lower. The generation of O2 •− within the mitochondrial matrix depends critically on Δp, the NADH/NAD+ and CoQH2/CoQ ratios and the local O2 concentration, which are all highly variable and difficult to measure in vivo. Consequently, it is not possible to estimate O2 •− generation by mitochondria in vivo from O2 •−-production rates by isolated mitochondria, and such extrapolations in the literature are misleading. Even so, the description outlined here facilitates the understanding of factors that favour mitochondrial ROS production. There is a clear need to develop better methods to measure mitochondrial O2 •− and H2O2 formation in vivo, as uncertainty about these values hampers studies on the role of mitochondrial ROS in pathological oxidative damage and redox signalling.
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              Insights into the regulation of protein abundance from proteomic and transcriptomic analyses.

              Recent advances in next-generation DNA sequencing and proteomics provide an unprecedented ability to survey mRNA and protein abundances. Such proteome-wide surveys are illuminating the extent to which different aspects of gene expression help to regulate cellular protein abundances. Current data demonstrate a substantial role for regulatory processes occurring after mRNA is made - that is, post-transcriptional, translational and protein degradation regulation - in controlling steady-state protein abundances. Intriguing observations are also emerging in relation to cells following perturbation, single-cell studies and the apparent evolutionary conservation of protein and mRNA abundances. Here, we summarize current understanding of the major factors regulating protein expression.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Antioxidants (Basel)
                Antioxidants (Basel)
                antioxidants
                Antioxidants
                MDPI
                2076-3921
                23 June 2021
                July 2021
                : 10
                : 7
                : 1003
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Biomedical Research Center Seltersberg (BFS), Laboratory for Nutrition in Prevention and Therapy, Institute of Nutritional Sciences, Justus Liebig University, Schubertstr. 81, 35392 Giessen, Germany; lukas.babylon@ 123456ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de (L.B.); Rekha.Grewal@ 123456ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de (R.G.)
                [2 ]Department of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Philipps Universität, Robert-Koch-Str. 4, 35037 Marburg, Germany; pascal.stahr@ 123456pharmazie.uni-marburg.de (P.-L.S.); ralph-walter.eckert@ 123456pharmazie.uni-marburg.de (R.W.E.); cornelia.keck@ 123456pharmazie.uni-marburg.de (C.M.K.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: eckert@ 123456uni-giessen.de
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8291-4900
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8888-2340
                Article
                antioxidants-10-01003
                10.3390/antiox10071003
                8300699
                34201544
                b28f73bf-9a03-455e-aa1b-fd2a3f561000
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 27 November 2020
                : 18 June 2021
                Categories
                Article

                alzheimer disease,mitochondria,ros,mitochondria dysfunction,nanoparticles,hesperetin,amyloid beta,peroxidase activity

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