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      Heterocyclic amines: Mutagens/carcinogens produced during cooking of meat and fish

      , , ,
      Cancer Science
      Wiley

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          Abstract

          Research leading to the discovery of a series of mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs) was inspired by the idea that smoke produced during cooking of food, especially meat or fish, might be carcinogenic. More than ten kinds of HCAs, actually produced by cooking or heating of meat or fish, have now been isolated and their structures determined, most being previously unregistered compounds. They are highly mutagenic towards Salmonella typhimurium in the presence of S9 mix and are also mutagenic in vitro and in vivo toward mammalian cells. HCAs have now been chemically synthesized in quantity and subjected to long-term animal testing. When HCAs were fed in the diet, rodents developed cancers in many organs, including the colon, breast and prostate, and one HCA produced hepatomas in monkeys. The lesions exhibited alteration in genes including Apc, beta-catenin and Ha-ras, and these changes provide clues to the induction mechanisms. The HCAs are oxidized to hydroxyamino derivatives by cytochrome P450s, and further converted to ester forms by acetyltransferase and sulfotransferase. Eventually, they produce DNA adducts through the formation of N-C bonds at guanine bases. There are HCA-sensitive and resistant strains of rodents and a search for the responsible genes is now under way. While the content of HCAs in dishes consumed in ordinary life is low and not sufficient in itself to explain human cancer, the coexistence of many other mutagens/carcinogens of either autobiotic or xenobiotic type and the possibility that HCAs induce genomic instability and heightened sensitivity to tumor promoters suggest that avoidance of exposure to HCAs or reduction of HCAs' biological effects as far as possible are to be highly recommended. Usage of microwave ovens for cooking and supplementation of the diet, for example with soy-isoflavones, which have been found to suppress the occurrence of HCA-induced breast cancers, should be encouraged. Advice to the general public about how to reduce the carcinogenic load imposed by HCAs would be an important contribution to cancer prevention.

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          Most cited references110

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          Global cancer statistics in the year 2000.

          D Parkin (2001)
          Estimation of the burden of cancer in terms of incidence, mortality, and prevalence is a first step to appreciating appropriate control measures in a global context. The latest results of such an exercise, based on the most recent available international data, show that there were 10 million new cases, 6 million deaths, and 22 million people living with cancer in 2000. The most common cancers in terms of new cases were lung (1.2 million), breast (1.05 million), colorectal (945,000), stomach (876,000), and liver (564,000). The profile varies greatly in different populations, and the evidence suggests that this variation is mainly a consequence of different lifestyle and environmental factors, which should be amenable to preventive interventions. World population growth and ageing imply a progressive increase in the cancer burden--15 million new cases and 10 million new deaths are expected in 2020, even if current rates remain unchanged.
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            Mutations of chromosome 5q21 genes in FAP and colorectal cancer patients.

            Previous studies suggested that one or more genes on chromosome 5q21 are responsible for the inheritance of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and Gardner's syndrome (GS), and contribute to tumor development in patients with noninherited forms of colorectal cancer. Two genes on 5q21 that are tightly linked to FAP (MCC and APC) were found to be somatically altered in tumors from sporadic colorectal cancer patients. One of the genes (APC) was also found to be altered by point mutation in the germ line of FAP and GS patients. These data suggest that more than one gene on chromosome 5q21 may contribute to colorectal neoplasia, and that mutations of the APC gene can cause both FAP and GS. The identification of these genes should aid in understanding the pathogenesis of colorectal neoplasia and in the diagnosis and counseling of patients with inherited predispositions to colorectal cancer.
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              Genetic identification of Mom-1, a major modifier locus affecting Min-induced intestinal neoplasia in the mouse.

              Mutations in the human APC gene caused various familial colon cancer syndromes. The Multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mouse provides an excellent model for familial colon cancer: it carries a mutant mouse Apc gene and develops many intestinal adenomas. Here, we analyze how this tumor phenotype is dramatically modified by genetic background. We report the genetic mapping of a locus that strongly modifies tumor number in Min/+ animals. This gene, Mom-1 (Modifier of Min-1), maps to distal chromosome 4 and controls about 50% of genetic variation in tumor number in two intraspecific backcrosses. The mapping is supported by a LOD score exceeding 14. Interestingly, Mom-1 lies in a region of synteny conservation with human chromosome 1p35-36, a region of frequent somatic loss of heterozygosity in a variety of human tumors, including colon tumors. These results provide evidence of a major modifier affecting expression of an inherited cancer syndrome.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cancer Science
                Cancer Science
                Wiley
                1347-9032
                1349-7006
                April 2004
                April 2004
                : 95
                : 4
                : 290-299
                Article
                10.1111/j.1349-7006.2004.tb03205.x
                15072585
                b29f5104-33a5-490e-97a5-2428eb7d3c0b
                © 2004

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1


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