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      The phylogenetic position of Anacanthorus (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) parasitizing Brazilian serrasalmids (Characiformes) Translated title: La position phylogénétique d’ Anacanthorus (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) parasitant les Serrasalmidés brésiliens (Characiformes)

      1 , 1 , 2 , 3 , *

      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Anacanthorus, Dactylogyridae, Serrasalmidae, Neotropical region, 28S rDNA, Molecular phylogeny

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          Abstract

          Anacanthorus (Anacanthorinae) is one of the most speciose and common genera of neotropical monogeneans, yet there are still many gaps in our knowledge concerning their diversity and phylogeny. We performed phylogenetic analyses of molecular sequences in order to investigate the phylogenetic position within the Dactylogyridae of Anacanthorus spp. infesting serrasalmids from two Brazilian river basins. Sequences of partial 28S rDNA obtained for nine species of Anacanthorus and Mymarothecium viatorum parasitizing serrasalmids and the published sequences of other members of the Dactylogyridae were included in the phylogenetic reconstruction. Phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of anacanthorine monogeneans. The Anacanthorinae (represented in this study by Anacanthorus spp.) formed a monophyletic group included in a large clade together with a group of solely freshwater Ancyrocephalinae and species of the Ancylodiscoidinae. Mymarothecium viatorum (Ancyrocephalinae) was placed within the clade of freshwater Ancyrocephalinae. The phylogenetic analyses indicated that the relationships among species of Anacanthorus reflect those of their serrasalmid hosts: the first subgroup includes a species specific to hosts assigned to Piaractus, a member of the “pacus” lineage; the second subgroup includes a species parasitizing the “ Myleus-like pacus” lineage; and the third subgroup includes species parasitizing the lineage of the “true piranhas”. We suggest that Anacanthorus and their serrasalmid hosts can be considered a useful model to assess host-parasite biogeography and coevolution in the neotropics. However, future studies focusing on a wider spectrum of host species and their specific Anacanthorus spp. are needed in order to investigate coevolution in this highly diversified system.

          Translated abstract

          Anacanthorus (Anacanthorinae) est parmi les genres les plus riches en espèces et les plus communs parmi les monogènes néotropicaux. Cependant, nos connaissances sur sa diversité et sa phylogénie sont encore lacunaires. Nous avons effectué des analyses phylogénétiques de séquences moléculaires afin d’étudier la position phylogénétique au sein des Dactylogyridae d’ Anacanthorus spp. infestant des Serrasalmidés de deux bassins fluviaux brésiliens. Les séquences d’ADNr 28S partiel obtenues pour 9 espèces d’ Anacanthorus et Mymarothecium viatorum parasitant les Serrasalmidés et les séquences publiées d’autres membres des Dactylogyridae ont été incluses dans la reconstruction phylogénétique. Les analyses phylogénétiques ont confirmé la monophylie des Anacanthorinae. Les Anacanthorinae (représentés dans cette étude par Anacanthorus spp.) forment un groupe monophylétique inclus dans un grand clade avec un groupe d’Ancyrocephalinae uniquement d’eau douce et d’espèces d’Ancylodiscoidinae. Mymarothecium viatorum (Ancyrocephalinae) a été placé dans le clade des Ancyrocephalinae d’eau douce. Les analyses phylogénétiques indiquent que les relations entre les espèces d’ Anacanthorus reflètent celles de leurs hôtes Serrasalmidés : le premier sous-groupe comprend une espèce spécifique aux hôtes attribués à Piaractus, un membre de la lignée « pacus » ; le deuxième sous-groupe comprend une espèce parasitant la lignée « pacus proche de Myleus » ; et le troisième sous-groupe comprend les espèces parasitant la lignée des « vrais piranhas ». Nous pensons qu’ Anacanthorus et ses hôtes Serrasalmidés peuvent être considérés comme un modèle utile pour évaluer la biogéographie hôte-parasite et la coévolution dans les régions néotropicales. Cependant, de futures études portant sur un spectre plus large d’espèces hôtes et de leurs espèces spécifiques d’ Anacanthorus spp. sont nécessaires pour étudier la coévolution dans ce système hautement diversifié.

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          Utility of complete large and small subunit rRNA genes in resolving the phylogeny of the Neodermata (Platyhelminthes): implications and a review of the cercomer theory

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            Speciation by host switch and adaptive radiation in a fish parasite genus Gyrodactylus (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae).

            Four hundred Gyrodactylus species have been formally described, but the estimated number of species in this fish ectoparasite genus of Monogenean Platyhelminthes is more than 20,000. The unusually high species richness has lead to the hypotheses of speciation and adaptive radiation via host switching. These hypotheses were tested by reconstructing a molecular phylogeny for the subgenus G. (Limnonephrotus) which is a group of freshwater parasites, including five species infecting wild and farmed salmonids. The highly variable ITS1 and ITS2 segments and the conservative 5.8S ribosomal gene were sequenced in 22 species plus two species representing the subgenus G. (Paranephrotus) as an outgroup. The phylogeny was compared with host systematics: the species were collected from six fish families (Cyprinidae, Salmonidae, Percidae, Esocidae, Gasterosteidae, and Gobitidae). The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that G. (Limnonephrotus) is a monophyletic group that was originally hosted by cyprinids. The speciation has occurred in two episodes, the older one manifested in genetic distances 25-33% (4-6 Myr BP). The latter speciation burst occurred in one clade only, perhaps one million years ago. This clade has been morphologically identified as a wageneri species group. It is a monophyletic group of 18 species [studied here] and contains all five salmonid parasites, but also parasites, on cyprinids, percids, esocids, and gasterosteids. In G. (Limnonephrotus), eight host switches crossing the host family barrier were observed, and at least three of them were followed by repetitive speciation. Seven host-switch events were statistically confirmed by bootstrapping. The suggested model of speciation by host switch was accepted, and interestingly the adaptive radiation seems to be a consequence of host switch to a new family (key innovation model). The molecular and ecological evolution rate of Gyrodactylus parasites is manyfold in comparison to host species, and the phylogenies are largely independent and disconnected.
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              Monogeneans of West African Cichlid Fish: Evolution and Cophylogenetic Interactions

              The goals of this paper were to investigate phylogenetic and evolutionary patterns of cichlid fish from West Africa and their Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus monogenean parasites, to uncover the presence of host-parasite cospeciation and to assess the level of morphological adaptation in parasites. This required the following steps, each one representing specific objectives of this paper: (1) to build phylogenetic trees for Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus species based on ribosomal DNA sequences, (2) to investigate phylogenetic relationships within West African cichlid fish based on the analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b DNA sequences, (3) to investigate host-parasite cophylogenetic history to gain clues on parasite speciation process, and (4) to investigate the link between the morphology of the attachment apparatus and parasite phylogeny. Phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyletic origin of the Cichlidogyrus/Scutogyrus group, and suggested that Cichlidogyrus is polyphyletic and that Scutogyrus is monophyletic. The phylogeny of Cichlidae supported the separation of mouthbrooders and substrate-brooders and is consistent with the hypothesis that the mouthbrooding behavior of Oreochromis and Sarotherodon evolved from substrate-brooding behavior. The mapping of morphological characters of the haptor onto the parasite phylogenetic tree suggests that the attachment organ has evolved from a very simple form to a more complex one. The cophylogenetic analyses indicated a significant fit between trees using distance-based tests, but no significant cospeciation signal using tree-based tests, suggesting the presence of parasite duplications and host switches on related host species. This shed some light on the diversification process of Cichlidogyrus species parasitizing West African cichlids.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2019
                23 July 2019
                : 26
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2019/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Curso de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Animal da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro BR 465, Km 7, Caixa Postal 74.540 23890-000 Seropédica RJ Brazil
                [2 ] Departamento de Parasitologia Animal, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro Caixa Postal 74.540 23851-970 Seropédica RJ Brazil
                [3 ] Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University Kotlářská 2 Brno 611 37 Czech Republic
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: simkova@ 123456sci.muni.cz
                Article
                parasite190034 10.1051/parasite/2019045
                10.1051/parasite/2019045
                6650203
                31335315
                © J. Moreira et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2019

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 74, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Research Article

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