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      Cerebral Small Vessel Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease

      Journal of Stroke

      Korean Stroke Society

      Acute stroke, Asian, Cognitive impairment, Dementia, Lacunar infarction, Retinopathy

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          Abstract

          Chronic kidney disease, defined by a decreased glomerular filtration rate or albuminuria, is recognized as a major global health burden, mainly because it is an established risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The magnitude of the effect of chronic kidney disease on incident stroke seems to be higher in persons of Asian ethnicity. Since the kidney and brain share unique susceptibilities to vascular injury due to similar anatomical and functional features of small artery diseases, kidney impairment can be predictive of the presence and severity of cerebral small vessel diseases. Chronic kidney disease has been reported to be associated with silent brain infarcts, cerebral white matter lesions, and cerebral microbleeds, independently of vascular risk factors. In addition, chronic kidney disease affects cognitive function, partly via the high prevalence of cerebral small vessel diseases. Retinal artery disease also has an independent relationship with chronic kidney disease and cognitive impairment. Stroke experts are no longer allowed to be ignorant of chronic kidney disease. Close liaison between neurologists and nephrologists can improve the management of cerebral small vessel diseases in kidney patients.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Stroke and bleeding in atrial fibrillation with chronic kidney disease.

          Both atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease increase the risk of stroke and systemic thromboembolism. However, these risks, and the effects of antithrombotic treatment, have not been thoroughly investigated in patients with both conditions. Using Danish national registries, we identified all patients discharged from the hospital with a diagnosis of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation between 1997 and 2008. The risk of stroke or systemic thromboembolism and bleeding associated with non-end-stage chronic kidney disease and with end-stage chronic kidney disease (i.e., disease requiring renal-replacement therapy) was estimated with the use of time-dependent Cox regression analyses. In addition, the effects of treatment with warfarin, aspirin, or both in patients with chronic kidney disease were compared with the effects in patients with no renal disease. Of 132,372 patients included in the analysis, 3587 (2.7%) had non-end-stage chronic kidney disease and 901 (0.7%) required renal-replacement therapy at the time of inclusion. As compared with patients who did not have renal disease, patients with non-end-stage chronic kidney disease had an increased risk of stroke or systemic thromboembolism (hazard ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 1.59; P<0.001), as did those requiring renal-replacement therapy (hazard ratio, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.57 to 2.14; P<0.001); this risk was significantly decreased for both groups of patients with warfarin but not with aspirin. The risk of bleeding was also increased among patients who had non-end-stage chronic kidney disease or required renal-replacement therapy and was further increased with warfarin, aspirin, or both. Chronic kidney disease was associated with an increased risk of stroke or systemic thromboembolism and bleeding among patients with atrial fibrillation. Warfarin treatment was associated with a decreased risk of stroke or systemic thromboembolism among patients with chronic kidney disease, whereas warfarin and aspirin were associated with an increased risk of bleeding. (Funded by the Lundbeck Foundation.).
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            Low glomerular filtration rate and risk of stroke: meta-analysis

            Objective To qualitatively and quantitatively investigate the link between a low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline and risk of future stroke. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Data sources PubMed (1966-October 2009) and Embase (1947-October 2009). Selection criteria Inclusion criteria were studies that prospectively collected data within cohort studies or clinical trials, estimated glomerular filtration rate at baseline using the modification of diet in renal disease or Cockcroft-Gault equations, assessed incident stroke, had a follow-up of at least one year, and reported quantitative estimates of multivariate adjusted relative risk and 95% confidence interval for stroke associated with an eGFR of 60-90 ml/min/1.73 m2 or <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Data abstraction Two investigators independently abstracted data from eligible studies. Estimates were combined using a random effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed by P value of χ2 statistics and I2. Publication bias was assessed by visual examination of funnel plots. Results 21 articles derived from 33 prospective studies: 14 articles assessed eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and seven assessed eGRF at both <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and 60-90 ml/min/1.73 m2 for a total of 284 672 participants (follow-up 3.2-15 years) with 7863 stroke events. Incident stroke risk increased among participants with an eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (relative risk 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.31 to 1.57; P<0.001) but not among those with an eGFR of 60-90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (1.07, 0.98 to 1.17; P=0.15). Significant heterogeneity existed between estimates among patients with an eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (P<0.001). In subgroup analyses among participants with an eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2, heterogeneity was significant in Asians compared with non-Asians (1.96, 1.73 to 2.23 v 1.25, 1.16 to 1.35; P<0.001), and those with an eGFR of 40-60 ml/min/1.73 m2 v <40 ml/min/1.73 m2 (1.28, 1.04 to 1.56 v 1.77, 1.32 to 2.38; P<0.01). Conclusions A baseline eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 was independently related to incident stroke across a variety of participants and study designs. Prompt and appropriate implementation of established strategies for reduction of vascular risk in people with know renal insufficiency may prevent future strokes.
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              Stroke and cerebrovascular diseases in patients with chronic kidney disease.

              Chronic kidney disease, defined as a reduced glomerular filtration rate or increased urinary albumin excretion, is recognised as a rapidly growing global health burden, and increasing evidence suggests that it contributes to the risk and severity of cerebrovascular diseases. In particular, chronic kidney disease is an established risk factor for stroke and is also strongly associated with subclinical cerebrovascular abnormalities and cognitive impairment, partly because it shares several traditional and non-traditional risk factors, and sometimes uraemia-related and dialysis-related factors, with cerebrovascular diseases. The effect of chronic kidney disease on incident stroke differs among regions and races and is greater in Asian than in non-Asian people. Chronic kidney disease seems to be predictive of severe neurological deficits and poor vital and functional outcomes after both ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes, which is partly due to the limitations of pharmacotherapies, including limited use and effects of novel oral anticoagulants, other antithrombotic treatments, and reperfusion treatment for hyperacute ischaemic stroke. In view of the strong two-way association between stroke and kidney disease, the pathophysiological interactions between the brain and kidney should be the subject of intensive study.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Stroke
                J Stroke
                JOS
                Journal of Stroke
                Korean Stroke Society
                2287-6391
                2287-6405
                January 2015
                30 January 2015
                : 17
                : 1
                : 31-37
                Affiliations
                Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka, Japan.
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Kazunori Toyoda. Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, 5-7-1 Fujishiro-dai, Suita, Osaka 565-8565, Japan. Tel: +81-6-6833-5012, Fax: +81-6-6835-5267, toyoda@ 123456ncvc.go.jp
                Article
                10.5853/jos.2015.17.1.31
                4325633
                Copyright © 2015 Korean Stroke Society

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Special Review
                Small Vessel Disease I

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