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      A review of the introduced forest pests in Brazil Translated title: Um artigo de revisão sobre pragas florestais introduzidas no Brasil

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          Abstract

          Abstract: Special attention should be given to forest plantings in order to minimize the probability of exotic pest introduction and, consequently, of production losses. The objective of this review was to present, under a historic perspective, the main exotic insects that harm the Brazilian forest sector. Therefore, to better describe the phytosanitary context of introduced forest pests in Brazil, the main information regarding these insects was gathered here. Introduced species and species with a risk of introduction were listed. The following species were registered: 12 exotic introduced species related to eucalyptus, non-quarantine; 9 species related to pine, one quarantine; and 1 species related to teak, quarantine. Overall, the core problems for 57 pest species were addressed, followed by projections on current risks and priorities. Biological control programs and their respective agents were also mentioned. For eucalyptus plantations, the species belonging to the genera Ophelimus and Leptocybe are priorities and should be emphasized. Regarding pine species, the main current concerns are Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (transmitted by species of Monochamus), Rhyacionia frustrana, and Dendroctonus frontalis. Better risk management requires reinforcement of phytosanitary inspections and constant refinement of contingency plans, whose actions include monitoring by visual sampling, employment of sentinel plants, and preventive breeding programs aiming at pest resistance.

          Translated abstract

          Resumo: Atenção especial deve ser dada a plantações florestais para minimizar a probabilidade de introdução de pragas exóticas e, consequentemente, as perdas de produção. O objetivo deste artigo de revisão foi apresentar, sob uma perspectiva histórica, os principais insetos exóticos que ameaçam o setor florestal brasileiro. Portanto, para melhor descrever o contexto fitossanitário das pragas florestais introduzidas no Brasil, foram compiladas as principais informações sobre esses insetos. Espécies introduzidas e aquelas com risco de introdução foram listadas. Foram contabilizadas: 12 pragas exóticas introduzidas, relacionadas a eucaliptos, sem status quarentenário; 9 espécies relacionadas ao pinus, uma quarentenária; e 1 espécie relacionada à teca, quarentenária. Ao todo, foram abordados os problemas centrais para 57 espécies, acompanhados de projeções sobre risco atual e prioridades. Programas de controle biológico e seus respectivos agentes também foram citados. Para os plantios de eucaliptos, as espécies pertencentes aos gêneros Ophelimus e Leptocybe são prioritárias e devem ser enfatizadas. Quanto às espécies de pinus, as maiores preocupações são Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (transmitida por espécies de Monochamus), Rhyacionia frustrana e Dendroctonus frontalis. Um melhor gerenciamento de risco requer reforço de inspeções fitossanitárias e constante refinamento dos planos de contingência, cujas ações incluem monitoramento por amostragem visual, uso de plantas sentinelas e programas de melhoramento que objetivem a resistência a pragas.

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          Most cited references62

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          Beyond yield: plant disease in the context of ecosystem services.

          The ecosystem services concept provides a means to define successful disease management more broadly, beyond short-term crop yield evaluations. Plant disease can affect ecosystem services directly, such as through removal of plants providing services, or indirectly through the effects of disease management activities, including pesticide applications, tillage, and other methods of plant removal. Increased plant biodiversity may reduce disease risk if susceptible host tissue becomes less common, or may increase risk if additional plant species are important in completing pathogen life cycles. Arthropod and microbial biodiversity may play similar roles. Distant ecosystems may provide a disservice as the setting for the evolution of pathogens that later invade a focal ecosystem, where plants have not evolved defenses. Conversely, distant ecosystems may provide a service as sources of genetic resources of great value to agriculture, including disease resistance genes. Good policies are needed to support conservation and optimal use of genetic resources, protect ecosystems from exotic pathogens, and limit the homogeneity of agricultural systems. Research is needed to provide policy makers, farmers, and consumers with the information required for evaluating trade-offs in the pursuit of the full range of ecosystem services desired from managed and native ecosystems.
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            Bronze Bug Thaumastocoris Peregrinus Carpintero and Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) on Eucalyptus in Brazil and its Distribution

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              Biological control of the eucalyptus gall wasp Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead): Taxonomy and biology of the parasitoid species Closterocerus chamaeleon (Girault), with information on its establishment in Israel

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                pab
                Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira
                Pesq. agropec. bras.
                Embrapa Informação Tecnológica, Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira
                1678-3921
                May 2016
                : 51
                : 5
                : 397-406
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Embrapa Florestas Brazil
                Article
                S0100-204X2016000500397
                10.1590/S0100-204X2016000500001
                b2cbcde3-5c68-4a31-a087-ef27d3ae02c8

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                History
                Product

                SciELO Brazil

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0100-204X&lng=en
                Categories
                AGRICULTURE, DAIRY & ANIMAL SCIENCE
                AGRICULTURE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY

                Animal agriculture,General agriculture
                pragas exóticas,pragas florestais,setor florestal,espécies invasoras,resistência a pragas,quarentenárias.,exotic pest,forest pest,forest sector,invasive species,pest resistance,quarantine.

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