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      Survivin: A molecular biomarker in cancer

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          Abstract

          Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein family that inhibits caspases and blocks cell death, is highly expressed in most cancers and is associated with a poor clinical outcome. Survivin has consistently been identified by molecular profiling analysis to be associated with high tumour grade cancers, different disease survival and recurrence. Polymorphisms in the survivin gene are emerging as powerful tools to study the biology of the disease and have the potential to be used in disease prognosis and diagnosis. The survivin gene polymorphisms have also been reported to influence tumour aggressiveness as well as survival of cancer patients. The differential expression of survivin in cancer cells compared to normal tissues and its role as a nodal protein in a number of cellular pathways make it a high target for different therapeutics. This review discusses the complex circuitry of survivin in human cancers and gene variants of survivin, and highlights novel therapy that targets this important protein.

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          Most cited references 82

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          Targeted cancer therapy.

          Disruption of the normal regulation of cell-cycle progression and division lies at the heart of the events leading to cancer. Complex networks of regulatory factors, the tumour microenvironment and stress signals, such as those resulting from damaged DNA, dictate whether cancer cells proliferate or die. Recent progress in understanding the molecular changes that underlie cancer development offer the prospect of specifically targeting malfunctioning molecules and pathways to achieve more effective and rational cancer therapy.
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            IAP-family protein survivin inhibits caspase activity and apoptosis induced by Fas (CD95), Bax, caspases, and anticancer drugs.

            Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family. We investigated the antiapoptotic mechanism of Survivin, as well as its expression in 60 human tumor cell lines used for the National Cancer Institute's anticancer drug screening program. In cotransfection experiments, cell death induced by Bax or Fas (CD 95) was partially inhibited (mean +/- SD, 65% +/- 8%) by Survivin, whereas XIAP, another IAP family member, almost completely blocked cell death (93% +/- 4%) under the same conditions. Survivin and XIAP also protected 293 cells from apoptosis induced by overexpression of procaspase-3 and -7 and inhibited the processing of these zymogens into active caspases. In vitro binding experiments indicated that, like other IAP-family proteins, Survivin binds specifically to the terminal effector cell death proteases, caspase-3 and -7, but not to the proximal initiator protease caspase-8. Using a cell-free system in which cytosolic extracts were derived from control- or Survivin-transfected cells and where caspases were activated either by addition of cytochrome c and dATP or by adding recombinant active caspase-8, Survivin was able to substantially reduce caspase activity, as measured by cleavage of a tetrapeptide substrate, AspGluValAsp-aminofluorocoumarin. Similar results were obtained in intact cells when Survivin was overexpressed by gene transfection and caspase activation was induced by the anticancer drug etoposide. Survivin was expressed in all 60 cancer cell lines analyzed, with highest levels in breast and lung cancers and lowest levels in renal cancers. These findings indicate that Survivin, which is commonly expressed in human tumor cell lines, can bind the effector cell death proteases caspase-3 and -7 in vitro and inhibits caspase activity and cell death in cells exposed to diverse apoptotic stimuli. Although quantitative differences may exist, these observations suggest commonality in the mechanisms used by IAP-family proteins to suppress apoptosis.
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              Survivin, a cancer target with an emerging role in normal adult tissues.

              Survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein, is highly expressed in most cancers and associated with chemotherapy resistance, increased tumor recurrence, and shorter patient survival, making antisurvivin therapy an attractive cancer treatment strategy. However, growing evidence indicates that survivin is expressed in normal adult cells, particularly primitive hematopoietic cells, T lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear neutrophils, and vascular endothelial cells, and may regulate their proliferation or survival. In preclinical animal models, targeted antisurvivin therapies show efficacy without overt toxicity. However, consequences of prolonged survivin disruption in normal cells, particularly those associated with continuous renewal, have not been clearly determined. Understanding the role of survivin in normal versus malignant cells will be important in identifying strategies that maximally disrupt survivin in cancer cells with minimal effect on normal tissues. In this review, we summarize the prognostic relevance of survivin in cancer that justifies the pursuit of antisurvivin therapies and discuss differences in survivin expression between normal and cancer cells. We subsequently review expression of survivin in normal adult tissues and evaluate preclinical antisurvivin therapies reported to date in light of emerging roles for survivin in normal physiology, particularly hematopoiesis, angiogenesis, and immune function.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Indian J Med Res
                Indian J. Med. Res
                IJMR
                The Indian Journal of Medical Research
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0971-5916
                0975-9174
                April 2015
                : 141
                : 4
                : 389-397
                Affiliations
                [* ] Department of Urology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India
                [** ] Department of Urology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India
                Author notes
                Reprint requests: Dr Rama Devi Mittal, Department of Urology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences Raebareli Road, Lucknow 226 014, Uttar Pradesh, India e-mail: ramamittal@ 123456gmail.com , rdm_pgi@ 123456rediffmail.com
                Article
                IJMR-141-389
                10.4103/0971-5916.159250
                4510718
                26112839
                Copyright: © Indian Journal of Medical Research

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Medicine

                cancer, cancer therapy, gene polymorphism, survivin

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