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Effects of Glutamine and Alanine Supplementation on Central Fatigue Markers in Rats Submitted to Resistance Training

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      Recent evidence suggests that increased brain serotonin synthesis impairs performance in high-intensity intermittent exercise and specific amino acids may modulate this condition, delaying fatigue. This study investigated the effects of glutamine and alanine supplementation on central fatigue markers in rats submitted to resistance training (RT). Wistar rats were distributed in: sedentary (SED), trained (CON), trained and supplemented with alanine (ALA), glutamine and alanine in their free form (G + A), or as dipeptide (DIP). Trained groups underwent a ladder-climbing exercise for eight weeks, with progressive loads. In the last 21 days, supplementations were offered in water with a 4% concentration. Albeit without statistically significance difference, RT decreased liver glycogen, and enhanced the concentrations of plasma glucose, free fatty acids (FFA), hypothalamic serotonin, and ammonia in muscle and the liver. Amino acids affected fatigue parameters depending on the supplementation form. G + A prevented the muscle ammonia increase by RT, whereas ALA and DIP augmented ammonia and glycogen concentrations in muscle. DIP also increased liver ammonia. ALA and G + A reduced plasma FFA, whereas DIP increased this parameter, free tryptophan/total tryptophan ratio, hypothalamic serotonin, and the serotonin/dopamine ratio. The supplementations did not affect physical performance. In conclusion, glutamine and alanine may improve or impair central fatigue markers depending on their supplementation form.

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            Author and article information

            [1 ]Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, Avenida Professor Lineu Prestes 580, São Paulo SP 05508-000, Brazil; abonvini@ (A.B.); jessicarrp3@ (J.R.R.P.); amandabogarcia@ (A.B.d.O.G.); rafael.souza.b.lara@ (R.d.S.B.L.); tirapegu@ (J.T.)
            [2 ]Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Public Health, University of São Paulo, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo 715, São Paulo SP 01246-904, Brazil; thaishypolito@ (T.H.); mmrogero@ (M.M.R.)
            [3 ]Faculty of Nutrition, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Avenida Fernando Correa 2367, Cuiabá MT 78060-900, Brazil; allangodois@
            Author notes
            [* ]Correspondence: audreycoqueiro@ (A.Y.C.); raqzel@ (R.R.); Tel.: +55-11-3091-3309 (A.Y.C.)
            25 January 2018
            February 2018
            : 10
            : 2
            © 2018 by the authors.

            Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (



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