Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common chronic disease, and its morbidity and mortality are increasing. There are many studies that have tried to explain the pathogenesis of COPD from genetic susceptibility, to identify the susceptibility of COPD factors, which play a role in early prevention, early detection and the early treatment. However, it is well known that COPD is an inflammatory disease characterized by incomplete reversible airflow limitation in which genes interact with the environment. In recent years, many studies have proved gene polymorphisms and COPD correlation. However, there is less research on the relationship between COPD and genome-wide association study (GWAS), epigenetics and apoptosis. In this paper, we summarized the correlation between gene level and COPD from the following four aspects: the GWAS, the gene polymorphism, the epigenetics and the apoptosis, and the relationship between COPD and gene is summarized comprehensively.