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A Status Review of the Bioactive Activities of Tiger Milk Mushroom Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden

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      Edible and medicinal mushrooms are regularly used in natural medicines and home remedies since antiquity for ailments like fever, inflammation, and respiratory disorders. Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden is a polypore found in Malaysia and other regions in South East Asia. It can be located on a spot where a tigress drips milk while feeding, hence the name “tiger's milk mushroom.” The sclerotium of L. rhinocerotis is highly sought after by the native communities in Malaysia to stave off hunger, relieve cough and asthma, and provide stamina. The genomic features of L. rhinocerotis have been described. The pharmacological and toxicity effects, if any, of L. rhinocerotis sclerotium have been scientifically verified in recent years. In this review, the validated investigations including the cognitive function, neuroprotection, immune modulation, anti-asthmatic, anti-coagulation, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial/ anti-viral, anti-obesity, anti-cancer/ anti-tumor, and antioxidant properties are highlighted. These findings suggest that L. rhinocerotis can be considered as an alternative and natural medicine in the management of non-communicable diseases. However, there is a paucity of validation studies including human clinical trials of the mycochemicals of L. rhinocerotis.

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      Nutrients in edible mushrooms: an inter-species comparative study

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        The Antiproliferative Activity of Sclerotia of Lignosus rhinocerus (Tiger Milk Mushroom)

        Lignosus rhinocerus, the tiger milk mushroom, is one of the most important medicinal mushrooms used by the indigenous people of Southeast Asia and China. It has been used to treat breast cancer. A cold water extract (LR-CW) prepared from the sclerotia of L. rhinocerus cultivar was found to exhibit antiproliferative activity against human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and human lung carcinoma (A549), with IC50 of 96.7  μ g/mL and 466.7  μ g/mL, respectively. In comparison, LR-CW did not show significant cytotoxicity against the two corresponding human normal cells, 184B5 (human breast cell) and NL 20 (human lung cell). DNA fragmentation studies suggested that the cytotoxic action of LR-CW against cancer cells is mediated by apoptosis. Sephadex G-50 gel filtration fractionation of LR-CW yielded a high-molecular-weight and a low-molecular-weight fraction. The high-molecular-weight fraction contains mainly carbohydrate (68.7%) and small amount of protein (3.6%), whereas the low-molecular-weight fraction contains 31% carbohydrate and was devoid of protein. Only the high-molecular-weight fraction exhibited antiproliferative activity against cancer cells, with IC50 of 70.0  μ g/mL and 76.7  μ g/mL, respectively. Thus, the cytotoxic action of the LR-CW is due to the high-molecular-weight fraction, either the proteins or protein-carbohydrate complex.
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          Nutrient composition, antioxidant properties, and anti-proliferative activity of Lignosus rhinocerus Cooke sclerotium.

          Lignosus rhinocerus (tiger milk mushroom) is an important medicinal mushroom used in Southeast Asia and China, and its sclerotium can be developed into functional food/nutraceuticals. The nutrient composition, antioxidant properties, and anti-proliferative activity of wild type and a cultivated strain of L. rhinocerus sclerotia were investigated. The sclerotial powder has high carbohydrate but low fat content. Interestingly, the cultivated strain contains higher amounts of protein and water-soluble substances than the wild type. Phenolic content of hot-water, cold-water, and methanol extracts of the sclerotial powders ranged from 19.32 to 29.42 mg gallic acid equivalents g⁻¹ extract, while the ferric reducing antioxidant power values ranged from 0.006 to 0.016 mmol min⁻¹ g⁻¹ extract. The DPPH• , ABTS•⁺ , and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities of the extracts ranged from 0.52 to 1.12, 0.05 to 0.20, and -0.98 to 11.23 mmol Trolox equivalents g⁻¹ extract, respectively. Both strains exhibited strong superoxide anion radical scavenging activity comparable to rutin. The cold-water extracts exhibited anti-proliferative activity against human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells, with IC₅₀ values of 206 µg mL⁻¹ and 90 µg mL⁻¹ for the wild type and cultivated strains, respectively. The cultivated L. rhinocerus sclerotium has the potential to be developed into functional food/nutraceuticals. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

            Author and article information

            1Mushroom Research Centre, University of Malaya , Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
            2Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya , Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
            3Department of Biochemistry, Karpagam Academy of Higher Education , Coimbatore, India
            4Faculty of Science, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya , Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
            Author notes

            Edited by: Banasri Hazra, Jadavpur University, India

            Reviewed by: Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi, University of Science, Malaysia, Malaysia; William Chi-Shing Tai, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong

            *Correspondence: Vikineswary Sabaratnam viki@

            This article was submitted to Ethnopharmacology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology

            Front Pharmacol
            Front Pharmacol
            Front. Pharmacol.
            Frontiers in Pharmacology
            Frontiers Media S.A.
            15 January 2018
            : 8
            5775285 10.3389/fphar.2017.00998
            Copyright © 2018 Nallathamby, Phan, Seow, Baskaran, Lakshmanan, Abd Malek and Sabaratnam.

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

            Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 86, Pages: 15, Words: 10744
            Funded by: Universiti Malaya 10.13039/501100004386
            Award ID: UM-MOHE UM.C/625/1/HIR/MOHE/SC/02
            Award ID: UM-MOHE UM.C/625/1/HIR/MOHE/ASG/01


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