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      Association of Dyslipidemia with Renal Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease

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          Dyslipidemia is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the relationship between dyslipidemia with renal outcomes in patients with moderate to advanced CKD remains controversial. Hence, our objective is to determine whether dyslipidemia is independently associated with rapid renal progression and progression to renal replacement therapy (RRT) in CKD patients. The study analyzed the association between lipid profile, RRT, and rapid renal progression (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] slope <−6 ml/min/1.73 m 2/yr) in 3303 patients with stages 3 to 5 CKD. During a median 2.8-year follow-up, 1080 (32.3%) participants commenced RRT and 841 (25.5%) had rapid renal progression. In the adjusted models, the lowest quintile (hazard ratios [HR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.49) and the highest two quintiles of total cholesterol (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.52 and HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.65 respectively) increased risks for RRT ( vs. quintile 2). Besides, the highest quintile of total cholesterol was independently associated with rapid renal progression (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.83). Our study demonstrated that certain levels of dyslipidemia were independently associated with RRT and rapid renal progression in CKD stage 3–5. Assessment of lipid profile may help identify high risk groups with adverse renal outcomes.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Plasma lipids and risk of developing renal dysfunction: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.

          Animal and in vitro data suggest that dyslipidemia plays an important role in the initiation and progression of chronic renal disease, but few prospective studies have been conducted in humans. We studied the relationship of plasma lipids to a rise in serum creatinine of 0.4 mg/dL or greater in 12,728 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) participants with baseline serum creatinine that was less than 2.0 mg/dL in men and less than 1.8 mg/dL in women. During a mean follow-up of 2.9 years, 191 persons had a rise in creatinine of 0.4 mg/dL or greater, yielding an incidence rate of 5.1 per 1000 person years. Individuals with higher triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and HDL-2 cholesterol at baseline were at increased risk for a rise in creatinine after adjustment for race, gender, baseline age, diabetes, serum creatinine, systolic blood pressure, and antihypertensive medication use (all P trends
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            Dyslipidemia of chronic renal failure: the nature, mechanisms, and potential consequences.

             N. Vaziri (2006)
            Chronic renal failure (CRF) results in profound lipid disorders, which stem largely from dysregulation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism. Specifically, maturation of HDL is impaired and its composition is altered in CRF. In addition, clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their atherogenic remnants is impaired, their composition is altered, and their plasma concentrations are elevated in CRF. Impaired maturation of HDL in CRF is primarily due to downregulation of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and, to a lesser extent, increased plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). Triglyceride enrichment of HDL in CRF is primarily due to hepatic lipase deficiency and elevated CETP activity. The CRF-induced hypertriglyceridemia, abnormal composition, and impaired clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their remnants are primarily due to downregulation of lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, and the very-low-density lipoprotein receptor, as well as, upregulation of hepatic acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT). In addition, impaired HDL metabolism contributes to the disturbances of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism. These abnormalities are compounded by downregulation of apolipoproteins apoA-I, apoA-II, and apoC-II in CRF. Together, these abnormalities may contribute to the risk of arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease and may adversely affect progression of renal disease and energy metabolism in CRF.
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              Statins for improving renal outcomes: a meta-analysis.

              Statins frequently are used to prevent cardiovascular events. Several recent studies suggest that statins also may have renal benefits, although this is controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to assess the effect of statins on change in kidney function and urinary protein excretion. Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, conference proceedings, and the authors' personal files were searched. Published or unpublished randomized, controlled trials or crossover trials of statins that reported assessment of kidney function or proteinuria were included, and studies of individuals with ESRD were excluded. Data were extracted for study design, subject characteristics, type of statin and dose, baseline/change in cholesterol levels, and outcomes (change in measured or estimated GFR [eGFR] and/or urinary protein excretion). Weighted mean differences were calculated for the change in GFR between statin and control groups using a random-effects model. A random-effects model also was used to calculate the standardized mean difference for the change in urinary protein excretion between groups. Twenty-seven eligible studies with 39,704 participants (21 with data for eGFR and 20 for proteinuria or albuminuria) were identified. Overall, the change in the weighted mean differences for eGFR was statistically significant (1.22 ml/min per yr slower in statin recipients; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44 to 2.00). In subgroup analysis, the benefit of statin therapy was statistically significant in studies of participants with cardiovascular disease (0.93 ml/min per yr slower than control subjects; 95% CI 0.10 to 1.76) but was NS for studies of participants with diabetic or hypertensive kidney disease or glomerulonephritis. The standardized mean difference for the reduction in albuminuria or proteinuria as a result of statin therapy was statistically significant (0.58 units of SD greater in statin recipients; 95% CI 0.17 to 0.98). Statin therapy seems to reduce proteinuria modestly and results in a small reduction in the rate of kidney function loss, especially in populations with cardiovascular disease.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                4 February 2013
                : 8
                : 2
                [1 ]Division of Nephrology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
                [2 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
                [3 ]Faculty of Renal Care, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
                [4 ]Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
                University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Brazil
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Data collection: MCK JJL YWC. Critical revisions: JMC SJH HCC. Conceived and designed the experiments: SCC CCH. Performed the experiments: SCC CCH MCK JJL YWC JMC SJH HCC. Analyzed the data: SCC CCH. Wrote the paper: SCC.


                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 6
                The authors have no support or funding to report.
                Research Article
                Clinical Research Design
                Longitudinal Studies
                Observational Studies
                Chronic Kidney Disease
                Developmental Nephrology
                Renal Transplantation



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