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      Factors associated with bronchiectasis in patients with moderate–severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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          A high prevalence of bronchiectasis was found by chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with moderate–severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and it was shown to be associated with more severe symptoms, higher frequency of exacerbations and mortality. The risk factors for bronchiectasis in COPD are not yet clarified.

          High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of chest was performed in patients with moderate–severe COPD, and the presence and the extent of bronchiectasis were evaluated by two radiologists. Demographic data, respiratory symptoms, lung function, previous pulmonary tuberculosis, serum inflammatory markers, serum total immunoglobulin E (T-IgE), and sputum culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were compared between those with and without bronchiectasis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent factors associated with bronchiectasis.

          We enrolled 190 patients with stable COPD, of which 87 (87/190, 45.8%) had bronchiectasis on HRCT. Compared with those without bronchiectasis, COPD patients with bronchiectasis were more likely to be males ( P = 0.021), had a lower body mass index (BMI) ( P = 0.019), a higher prevalence of previous tuberculosis ( P = 0.005), longer history of dyspnea ( P < 0.001), more severe dyspnea ( P = 0.041), higher frequency of acute exacerbation ( P = 0.002), higher serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) ( P = 0.017), fibrinogen ( P = 0.016), and T-IgE [ P = 0.004; for log 10(T-IgE), P <0.001]. COPD patients with bronchiectasis also showed poorer lung function (for FEV 1/FVC, P = 0.013; for FEV 1%predicted, P = 0.012; for global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) grades, P = 0.035), and a higher positive rate of sputum P aeruginosa ( P = 0.020). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that male gender ( P = 0.021), previous tuberculosis ( P = 0.021), and increased level of serum T-IgE [for log 10(T-IgE), P < 0.001] were risk factors for coexistent bronchiectasis. More notably, the level of serum T-IgE [log 10(T-IgE)] was positively correlated with the extent of bronchiectasis in COPD patients ( r = 0.208, P = 0.05).

          Higher serum T-IgE, male gender, and previous tuberculosis are independent risk factors for coexistent bronchiectasis in COPD. The association of T-IgE with the extent of bronchiectasis also suggests that further investigations are needed to explore the potential role of IgE in the pathogenesis of bronchiectasis in COPD.

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          Prevalence of COPD in five Colombian cities situated at low, medium, and high altitude (PREPOCOL study).

          The prevalence of COPD in Colombia is unknown. This study aimed to investigate COPD prevalence in five Colombian cities and measure the association between COPD and altitude. A cross-sectional design and a random, multistage, cluster-sampling strategy were used to provide representative samples of adults aged >or= 40 years. Each participant was interviewed (validated Spanish version of the Ferris Respiratory Questionnaire) and performed spirometry before and after 200 microg of inhaled salbutamol, using a portable spirometer according to American Thoracic Society recommendations. COPD definitions were as follows: (1) spirometric: fixed ratio (primary definition): FEV1/FVC or= 3 months every year during >or= 2 consecutive years (chronic bronchitis). Analysis was performed using statistical software. A total of 5,539 orsubjects were included. The overall COPD prevalence using the primary definition (spirometric) was 8.9%, ranging from 6.2% in Barranquilla to 13.5% in Medellín. The prevalence measured by the spirometric definition was higher than medical (2.8%) and clinical (3.2%) definitions. After the logistic regression analysis, the factors related with COPD were age >or= 60 years, male gender, history of tuberculosis, smoking, wood smoke exposure >or= 10 years, and very low education level. There was a nonsignificant tendency toward larger prevalence with higher altitude. COPD is an important health burden in Colombia. Additional studies are needed to establish the real influence of altitude on COPD prevalence.
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            Characterisation of phenotypes based on severity of emphysema in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

            Airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is caused by a mixture of small airway disease and emphysema, the relative contributions of which may vary among patients. Phenotypes of COPD classified purely based on severity of emphysema are not well defined and may be different from the classic phenotypes of "pink puffers" and "blue bloaters". To characterise clinical phenotypes based on severity of emphysema, 274 subjects with COPD were recruited, excluding those with physician-diagnosed bronchial asthma. For all subjects a detailed interview of disease history and symptoms, quality of life (QOL) measurement, blood sampling, pulmonary function tests before and after inhalation of salbutamol (0.4 mg) and high-resolution CT scanning were performed. Severity of emphysema visually evaluated varied widely even among subjects with the same stage of disease. No significant differences were noted among three groups of subjects classified by severity of emphysema in age, smoking history, chronic bronchitis symptoms, blood eosinophil count, serum IgE level or bronchodilator response. However, subjects with severe emphysema had significantly lower body mass index (BMI) and poorer QOL scores, evaluated using St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), than those with no/mild emphysema (mean (SD) BMI 21.2 (0.5) vs 23.5 (0.3) kg/m(2), respectively; SGRQ total score 40 (3) vs 28 (2), respectively; p<0.001 for both). These characteristics held true even if subjects with the same degree of airflow limitation were chosen. The severity of emphysema varies widely even in patients with the same stage of COPD, and chronic bronchitis symptoms are equally distributed irrespective of emphysema severity. Patients with the phenotype in which emphysema predominates have lower BMI and poorer health-related QOL.
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              Latent tuberculosis infection in rural China: baseline results of a population-based, multicentre, prospective cohort study.

              Prophylactic treatment of individuals with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is an essential component of tuberculosis control in some settings. In China, the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection, and preventive interventions against this disease, have not been systematically studied. We aimed to assess the prevalence of latent tuberculosis and its associated risk factors in rural populations in China.

                Author and article information

                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Wolters Kluwer Health
                July 2016
                22 July 2016
                : 95
                : 29
                [a ]Department of Respiratory Medicine
                [b ]Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Dongjiaominxiang, Dongcheng District
                [c ]Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Huayuanbeilu, Haidian District, Beijing, China.
                Author notes
                []Correspondence: Yongchang Sun, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China (e-mail: suny@ 123456ccmu.edu.cn ).
                Copyright © 2016 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

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