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      The Conceptual Framework of Harmful Gambling: A revised framework for understanding gambling harm


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          Background and aims

          The Conceptual Framework of Harmful Gambling moves beyond a symptoms-based view of harm and addresses a broad set of factors related to the risks and effects of gambling harmfully at the individual, family, and community levels. Coauthored by international research experts and informed by multiple stakeholders, Gambling Research Exchange (GREO) facilitated the framework development in 2013 and retains responsibility for regular updates and mobilization. This review article presents information about the revised version of the Conceptual Framework of Harmful Gambling completed in late 2018.


          We describe eight interrelated factors depicted in the framework that represent major themes in gambling ranging from the specific (gambling environment, exposure, gambling types, and treatment resources) to the general (cultural, social, psychological, and biological influences). After outlining the framework development and collaborative process, we highlight new topics for the recent update that reflect changes in the gambling landscape and prominent discourses in the scientific community. Some of these topics include social and economic impacts of gambling, and a new model of understanding gambling related harm.

          Discussion and conclusions

          We address the relevance of the CFHG to the gambling and behavioral addictions research community. Harm-based frameworks have been undertaken in other areas of addiction that can both inform and be informed by a model dedicated to harmful gambling. Further, the framework brings a multi-disciplinary perspective to bear on antecedents and factors that co-occur with harmful gambling.

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          Most cited references144

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          Problem gambling worldwide: An update and systematic review of empirical research (2000–2015)

          Problem gambling has been identified as an emergent public health issue, and there is a need to identify gambling trends and to regularly update worldwide gambling prevalence rates. This paper aims to review recent research on adult gambling and problem gambling (since 2000) and then, in the context of a growing liberalization of the gambling market in the European Union, intends to provide a more detailed analysis of adult gambling behavior across European countries. A systematic literature search was carried out using academic databases, Internet, and governmental websites. Following this search and utilizing exclusion criteria, 69 studies on adult gambling prevalence were identified. These studies demonstrated that there are wide variations in past-year problem gambling rates across different countries in the world (0.12–5.8%) and in Europe (0.12–3.4%). However, it is difficult to directly compare studies due to different methodological procedures, instruments, cut-offs, and time frames. Despite the variability among instruments, some consistent results with regard to demographics were found. The findings highlight the need for continuous monitoring of problem gambling prevalence rates in order to examine the influence of cultural context on gambling patterns, assess the effectiveness of policies on gambling-related harms, and establish priorities for future research.
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            Prevalence of Adolescent Problem Gambling: A Systematic Review of Recent Research

            Previous research has shown that gambling is a popular activity among adolescents. Following a rapid expansion of legalized gambling opportunities and the emergence of new forms of gambling, many researchers have carried out studies on adolescent gambling and problem gambling. The present paper reviews studies that have been conducted worldwide since 2000, and then presents a more detailed picture of adolescent gambling research in Europe, by providing a country-by country analysis. After an extensive search on academic databases and following an exclusion process, 44 studies were identified. The findings showed that 0.2–12.3 % of youth meet criteria for problem gambling, notwithstanding differences among assessment instruments, cut-offs, and timeframes. However, despite this variability, several demographic characteristics were associated with adolescent gambling involvement and problem gambling. It is concluded that a small but significant minority of adolescents have gambling-related problems. Such findings will hopefully encourage more research into youth gambling to further understand the determinants of this phenomenon.
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                Author and article information

                J Behav Addict
                J Behav Addict
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                June 2020
                16 June 2020
                : 9
                : 2
                : 190-205
                [1 ]Gambling Research Exchange , Guelph, ON, Canada
                [2 ]deptDeptartment of Recreation & Leisure Studies , University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada
                [3 ]Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences , Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
                [4 ]School of Global Studies , University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
                [5 ]deptCentre for Gambling Research at UBC, Department of Psychology , University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
                [6 ]deptDepartment of Psychology , University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
                [7 ]School of Northern and Community Studies , Laurentian University, Sudbury, ON, Canada
                [8 ]Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute , Centre for Addiction and Mental Health , Toronto, ON, Canada
                [9 ]deptDepartment of Psychiatry , University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
                [10 ]Public Health Agency of Sweden , Östersund, Sweden
                [11 ]School of Public Health and Health Sciences , University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA
                [12 ]deptDepartment of Economics , College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, USA
                [13 ]Faculty of Health Sciences , University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, Canada
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Gambling Research Exchange , 55 Wyndham St. N., Suite 204A, Guelph, ON, N1H 7T8, Canada E-mail: margo@ 123456greo.ca . Tel.: +1 519 763 8049, x101
                Author information
                © 2020 The Author(s)

                Open Access statement. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                : 05 September 2019
                : 10 January 2020
                : 19 March 2020
                : 05 April 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 01, References: 144, Pages: 16
                Review Article

                conceptual framework,harmful gambling,public health,social determinants of health,interdisciplinarity,harmful gambling antecedents


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