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      Postmortem Evaluation of Left Flank Laparoscopic Access in an Adult Female Giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis)

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          Abstract

          There are still few reports of laparoscopy in megavertebrates. The giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis) is the tallest land mammal, and the largest ruminant species. An 18-year-old multiparous female hybrid giraffe, weighing 650 kg, was euthanized for chronic health problems, and left flank laparoscopy was performed less than 30 minutes after death. Safe primary access was achieved under visualisation using an optical bladed trocar (Visiport Plus, Tyco healthcare UK Ltd) without prior abdominal insufflation. A left paralumbar fossa approach allowed access to the spleen, rumen, left kidney, and intestines, but did not allow access to the reproductive tract which in nongravid females is intrapelvic in nature.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Extensive population genetic structure in the giraffe

          Background A central question in the evolutionary diversification of large, widespread, mobile mammals is how substantial differentiation can arise, particularly in the absence of topographic or habitat barriers to dispersal. All extant giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) are currently considered to represent a single species classified into multiple subspecies. However, geographic variation in traits such as pelage pattern is clearly evident across the range in sub-Saharan Africa and abrupt transition zones between different pelage types are typically not associated with extrinsic barriers to gene flow, suggesting reproductive isolation. Results By analyzing mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellite loci, we show that there are at least six genealogically distinct lineages of giraffe in Africa, with little evidence of interbreeding between them. Some of these lineages appear to be maintained in the absence of contemporary barriers to gene flow, possibly by differences in reproductive timing or pelage-based assortative mating, suggesting that populations usually recognized as subspecies have a long history of reproductive isolation. Further, five of the six putative lineages also contain genetically discrete populations, yielding at least 11 genetically distinct populations. Conclusion Such extreme genetic subdivision within a large vertebrate with high dispersal capabilities is unprecedented and exceeds that of any other large African mammal. Our results have significant implications for giraffe conservation, and imply separate in situ and ex situ management, not only of pelage morphs, but also of local populations.
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            Introduction

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              The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals

               J. Kingdon (2003)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Vet Med Int
                VMI
                Veterinary Medicine International
                SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
                2042-0048
                2010
                30 March 2010
                : 2010
                Affiliations
                1Royal Zoological Society of Scotland, Edinburgh Zoo, 134 Corstorphine Road, EH12 6TS Edinburgh, UK
                2Zoological Medicine Ltd, 79A Garvock Hill, Dunfermline, KY12 7UT Fife, UK
                3Inglis Veterinary Centre, 120 Halbeath Road, Dunfermline, KY11 4LA Fife, UK
                4Marwell Wildlife, Colden Common, Winchester, SO21 1JH Hampshire, UK
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Michael Stoskopf

                Article
                10.4061/2010/789465
                2858931
                20445792
                Copyright © 2010 R. Pizzi et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Case Report

                Veterinary medicine

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